Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Post Office Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6362

managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp.

for the U.S. Department of Energy

Phone No. 423-574-6176

FAX 423-574-6182

Internet: PDC@ORNL.GOV


379 June 1996
Nature gives to every time and season some beauties of its own; and from morning to night, as from the cradle to the grave, is but a succession of changes so gentle and easy that we can scarcely mark their progress.--Dickens

EPIC Becomes RIAS,Bernadette Kirk to Lead RSIC

Effective May 27, 1996, the Engineering Physics Information Centers Section became the Radiation Information Analysis Section (RIAS). A Nuclear Database Management Systems Group (NDBMS) and a Nuclear Data Group (ND) were added to the organization. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), the Applied Nuclear Data Development activity (ANDD), and the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) will continue in close collaboration with the new groups so that technology developed by the new groups can be transferred via RSIC.The name "Radiation Information Analysis" reflects the concepts upon which RSIC has operated since its inception, and more effectively and efficiently includes nuclear data as part of the technical information base needed by radiation transport analysts.

Maurice Greene will lead the NDBMS group which is staffed by J. W. Arwood, M. A. Bunch, H.T. Hunter, J. C. Ryman, and J. A. Wang. Luiz Leal will lead the Nuclear Data Group, staffed by C. Y. Fu, N. Larson, J. Rammsy, R. Spencer, and R. Q. Wright. Bernadette Kirk is now the Director of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). John White continues to be responsible for Applied Nuclear Data Development (ANDD), and Noel Cramer continues responsibility for the SARP work. The staff of RIAS will be able to integrate the complex process of providing nuclear data in forms directly usable by the radiation transport analyst, starting from differential data and ending in the production of application-dependent data libraries. The range of activities will include measurements, model development and data evaluation, processing code development, production of data libraries, benchmark testing, and packaging and distribution of final products via RSIC.

The new organization concentrates activities and minimizes duplication of effort related to nuclear data and databases, cross-section processing methods development, and applied nuclear data development that are pertinent to the spectrum of applications internal to the Computational Physics and Engineering Division (CPED) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, the consolidation of these activities within RIAS strengthens the external interface that CPED has with the domestic and international radiation transport community.

Robert W. Roussin, Director, RIAS


Four changes were made to the computer code collection during the month. Two new code systems were added to the collection and two existing code packages were corrected.



Language: Fortran 77, C

Computers: PC, workstation

Format: DOS, tar

Oak Ridge National Laboratory updated both the Unix and PC versions of the SCALE4.3 package with corrections and enhancements to KENO-VI and CSAS6. KENO-VI was enhanced to print a title and color legend on color screen plots (i.e., GIF files). In the new versions, only the first six occurrences of a particular message are printed prior to termination, whereas the initial releases of these codes could generate thousands of error messages. In CSAS6 an error in the logic used to check mixture numbers that caused all CSAS26X cases and some CSAS26 cases to fail was corrected. In KENO-VI the particle-tracking algorithm was modified to print an error and terminate the problem if a particle crosses into a hole and does not find itself in the unit contained within the hole. An error was corrected in the cross-section processing that caused k-eff to double when using an ICE-mixed AMPX format working-format library. Details of these and a few other enhancements and minor problems are included in the July 1996 issue of the SCALE Newsletter, which is available on the world-wide web at

The updates are available on the ORNL anonymous ftp server. Users may access these via anonymous ftp to (, then cd to pub/rsic/scale4.3, specify binary mode and get either the compressed Unix (K6.tar.Z) or DOS (K6dos.exe) file. Switch to ASCII mode and get the Readme.k6 file which includes details on installing the updates. The updated 44-group cross sections announced in the previous edition of this newsletter are also available on the server and should be retrieved by all SCALE users who have not already done so. Details are in the Readme.c545 file. Unix users should get either scale.rev04.xn44. unix.big.endian.bin or scale.rev04. xn44.unix.little.endian.bin; PC users must get scale44g.exe. Users without ftp access may contact RSIC for a replacement.

The Unix version of SCALE-4.3 runs on IBM RS/6000, DEC, SUN, HP, and SGI workstations. SCALE-PC runs on 486 and Pentium personal computers with a math coprocessor and at least 8 MB extended memory. Nominal hard disk requirements vary from 60 MB for a minimum installation to install the executables and data files (except the 238-group library) to 350 MB for a complete installation, including space for compiling, linking, and running sample problems.

References: NUREG/CR-0200, Rev. 5 (ORNL/NUREG/CSD-2/R5), Vols. I, II, and III (Draft September 1995), NUREG/CR-5468 (ORNL/CSD/TM-270)(May 1990), NE007 (July 1977), NUREG/CR-6182, Vol. 1 (ORNL/TM-12663/V1) (November 1994), NUREG/CR-6182, Vol. 2 (ORNL/TM-12663/V2) (November 1994). Fortran 77 and C; IBM RS/6000 DEC, and SUN workstations (C00545/MNYWS/01) and PC486 (C00545/PC486/02).



Language: Fortran 77

Computers: PC

Format: DOS

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, contributed this code system to solve for the release and transport of contaminants through saturated and unsaturated media. BLT, an extension of the code FEMWASTE, uses the contaminant transport routines supplied by FEMWASTE and has extended capabilities to model container and waste form performance. FEMWATER is included to calculate unsaturated/saturated water flow in subsurface media. Only minor modifications to permit the code to run under DOS instead of a VMS system were performed on this code. FEMWASTE and FEMWATER were originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and are distributed by RSIC as CCC-451. Also included in the package are GRAFBLT, a graphics post-processor to view code output, and REDIMGRD, a program to take the larger grid domain used to calculate water flow and recalculate a new, smaller grid used for examining the source term region in detail.

BLT solves for the release and transport of contaminants from containerized wastes. Each container may have unique properties (i.e., time to failure or localized failure, e.g. pitting) and each waste form may have unique release properties. Release from the waste form is limited by one of four physical or chemical constraints: solubility, diffusion, dissolution, and surface wash-off with partitioning. The release from the waste form acts as a source for transport in the advection/dispersion equation. Transport is modeled in two-dimensions through the groundwater pathway from subsurface disposal. The advection/dispersion transport equation with spatially varying sources (waste forms) is solved in two-dimensions using the method of finite elements.

The codes run on IBM PCs or compatibles with an 80386 processor; 500K of available conventional memory is required for execution. The Lahey Fortran v5.0 compiler was used to build the executables included in the package. The code is transmitted on one 3.5-in. DS/HD (1.44MB) diskette written in self-extracting compressed DOS files and includes the source code, PC executables, test case input/output, and the referenced documentation. Reference: NUREG/CR-53877, BNL-NUREG-52206 (July 1989). Fortran 77; IBM PC 386/486 and compatibles (C00633/PC386/00).



Language: Fortran 77, C

Computers: many workstations and mainframes

Format: tar

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contributed this one-, two- and three-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron/photon transport code system. DOORS 3.1 includes the most recent versions of CCC-543/TORT-DORT, CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL, CCC-628/GBANISN, and CCC-351/ FALSTF. It also includes the ISOPLOT code from PSR-155/DOGS and various utility programs previously included in the TORT-DORT package: GIP, ALC, RTFLUM, BNDRYS, GRTUNCL, VISA, TORSED, and TORSET. In this release each module is a separate executable file. ISOPLOT was modified to use the Sandia National Laboratory RSCORS graphical system. Sandia National Laboratory's CMP system for code maintenance is used to build the Fortran source files for the target computer. Both RSCORS and CMP are distributed with the system. Several modules can be run in a single job by using "jdos" to call the "drv" module which interprets the sequence specified in the input. Future plans include an integrated Motif/MFC based system.

TORT calculates the flux or fluence of particles due to particles incident upon the system from extraneous sources or generated internally as a result of interaction with the system in two- or three-dimensional geometric systems; DORT is used in one- or two-dimensional geometric systems. The principle application is to the deep-penetration transport of neutrons and photons. Certain reactor eigenvalue problems can also be solved. Numerous printed edits of the results are available, and results can be transferred to output files for subsequent analysis.

ANISN solves the one-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons or gamma rays in slab, sphere, or cyinder geometry. GBANISN, based on ANISN, was modified to allow randomizing of user-select energy group fluxes within a "band" at all interfaces between dissimilar materials and a reduction in the number of outer iterations for problems involving neutron upscatter into higher energy groups.

DOORS runs on Cray, IBM RS/6000, Sun, DEC Alpha, SGI and Hewlett Packard systems under Unix-based operating systems. It was rigorously tested on CRAY and IBM systems, and test cases in the package were run on the other systems. Some numerical errors occurred when solving difficult problems on short-word configurations.

Included in the package are hardcopies of the referenced documents in 10.a and a Unix tar file written on either CD-ROM, QIC-150 (150 MB), 4-mm (8GB), or 8-mm (2.3 GB) cartridge tapes. The tar file contains the Fortran and C source files, test cases, implementation instructions, procedures, description of sample problem cases, and much of the referenced documentation. References: ORNL/TM-13221 Draft (June 1996), ORNL/TM-11778 (March 1992), K-1693 (March 1967), NAA-SR-10951 (March 1966), ORNL/TM-12675 (Jan. 1996), ORNL/TM-8362 (September 1982), ORNL/TM-12246 (January 1993), ORNL/TM-12359 (August 1993), ORNL/TM-4015 (December 1972), SAND85-0825 (April 8, 1991), SAND99-XXXX (unpublished, 1991). Fortran and C; Cray Unicos, IBM AIX, Sun, DEC OSF/1, SGI and Hewlett Packard (C00650/MFMWS/00).


OP SYS: Unix

Language: Fortran 77, C

Computers: Cray, IBM/RS 6000

Format: DOS

A minor correction was made to the IBM RS/6000 version of AXMIX to add some common blocks omitted from the original distribution. Oak Ridge National Laboratory contributed this fast, simple, and economical tool for creating cross-section data sets for CCC-254/ANISN and CCC-543/TORT-DORT, and the new CCC-650/DOORS package from cross-section sets in ANISN format, nuclide-organized libraries, and group-independent data sets. Numerous options including adjointing, Pn adjustments, changing table length, mixing, transport corrections of ANISN-type cross sections, and management of cross-section data sets and libraries are available. The package also includes AMP (Activity Manipulation Program) and GIP (Group-Organized Cross-Section Input Program). AXMIX is operable on the IBM RS/6000 AIX and Cray Unicos systems and is transmitted on one 3.5" (1.44 MB) diskette written in DOS format, which contains the source code and sample problem input and output for AMP, AXMIX and GIP. References: ORNL/TM-5295 (December 1974), ORNL/TM-5296 (June 1975), Informal Notes (November 1975). Fortran 77 and C Language; IBM RS/6000 (P00075/IRISC/01) and Cray (P00075/CY0MP/00).


One new data library was added to the data library collection during the month.



Language: Fortran 77

Computers: many

Format: DOS

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland, contributed this data library of photon cross sections and the XCOM program for retrieving and displaying them. The NIST, through its Office of Standard Reference Data, has long maintained and published compilations of measured and evaluated photon cross sections. This compilation of XCOM Version 1.2 represents best values as determined in 1987. XCOM1 (Version 1.3), copyright 1991, is similar to Version 1.2 but uses the direct-access unformatted database file UDAT. Partial interaction coefficients and total attenuation coefficients are useful in any radiation transport or other radiation analysis application. The data are in both ASCII and binary files for 100 elements covering the energy range 1 keV to 100 GeV. The reactions considered are coherent and incoherent scattering, photoelectric absorption, and pair production. XCOM is a program for the retrieval and display of the partial interaction coefficients and total attenuation coefficients for elements, compounds, and mixtures. The user specifies the element or compound chemical symbol or provides weight fractions for each constituent specified by atomic number. Two kinds of output are produced: labeled tables for printing or arrays for input to other programs. The output can be in units of cm2/g or barns per atom. Note: the total attenuation coefficient without coherent scattering includes bound Compton scattering.

The XCOM1.2 program is written in Fortran 77 and was tested at RSIC using the Ryan-McFarland Version 2.42 compiler. Both the source program (eight files) and the executable program provided by NIST, compiled by a Ryan-McFarland compiler, are on the distribution diskette. Also included are XCOM1.3, which is a more system independent Fortran source, and ASCII data files. PC executables created with the Lahey F77 Vers. 5.1 compiler are in the package. This program can be compiled on many systems. XCOM is transmitted on one 1.44(MB) DS/HD 3.5-in. diskette. Reference: NBSIR 87-3597 (1987). Fortran 77; IBM PC (D00174/ IBMPC/00).


In serving a specialized area of scientific endeavor, it seems important that we note significant events or changes in the activities of people concerned with radiation protection, transport, and shielding in the nuclear industry. We, therefore, continue to carry personal items as they are brought to our attention.

Shafique Bhuiyan of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), which is part of the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, has completed a 6-month assignment at RSIC as an IAEA Fellow. The primary purpose of his assignment was to improve the calculational capability of INST to analyze their TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor. This assignment was designed to complement earlier work done at INST using older computational tools and nuclear data.

A comprehensive study was initiated to generate a 69-group WIMS nuclear data library based on the latest release of ENDF/B-VI reference data. As a prelude to this task various exercises and review studies were performed including an orientation to working in a UNIX computing environment. A number of computer codes were revised and implemented on RSIC workstation computers. Various aspects of cross section data library development have been studied. A revised executable for NJOY94.10+ was made that incorporates the suggested changes from Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the WIMSR module of NJOY94. This executable was used to process 28 nuclides into the WIMS library format. These nuclides are needed for TRIGA reactor analysis. The ENDF/B-VI based data library has been tested using TRX1-2 and BAPL1-3 benchmark exercises. Benchmark testing with other experiments, and operational TRIGA data are in progress. It is anticipated that this WIMS data library for TRIGA reactor calculations will become part of the RSIC data library collection.

The RSIC staff has enjoyed working with Shafique during his assignment to Oak Ridge and wish him the very best in his future professional endeavors.

Norman M. Schaeffer was presented with the Norman Rockwell Award during the ANS Radiation Protection and Shielding Division Topical Meeting held in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The citation reads as follows:

"Throughout his highly productive career, Dr. Schaeffer has had a very significant influence on many areas of radiation shielding. In his early career at General Dynamics, he participated in planning the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) experimental shielding program and directed the initial experiments with the Ground Test Reactor. He also directed investigations in airborne shielding, space radiation environments, and military vehicle shielding. In 1962, following the termination of the ANP program, he organized Radiation Research Associates (RRA) and remained as its President until its dissolution in 1989. At RRA he built and directed a team of up to thirty shielding and radiation transport specialists who made numerous original contributions to computer modeling and analysis of light and nuclear radiation transport for space and terrestrial applications. He was the principal author and editor of the well-known book Reactor Shielding for Nuclear Engineers, a contributor to the Engineering Compendium on Radiation Shielding and contributor to Volume I, "Materials" of the Reactor Handbook as well as a contributor to numerous other handbooks, technical reports and shielding articles during his career. However, his contribution to the shielding community also lies strongly with his selfless devotion to helping those new to the field and his untiring commitment to the development and maintenance of high standards among the practitioners in the field.

For nearly thirty-five years, Dr. Schaeffer has been an active participant in the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division of the American Nuclear Society. He was a founding member of the Membership Committee. In addition, he served as the Chair of ANS-6, the Shielding Standards Subcommittee, and under his leadership the first ANS shielding standards were prepared and published. He is a Fellow of the Society and has received the Division's Outstanding Service Award.

During his distinguished career, Dr. Schaeffer has had a profound influence on the experimental and applied aspects of radiation shielding and for this, shielding specialists everywhere owe him a debt of gratitude."

Conference, Courses, and Symposia


The following literature cited has been ordered for review, and that selected as suitable will be placed in the RSIC Information Storage and Retrieval Information System (SARIS). This early announcement is made as a service to the shielding community. Copies of the literature are not distributed by RSIC. They may generally be obtained from the author or from a documentation center such as the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. For literature listed as available from INIS contact INIS Clearinghouse, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna.

RSIC maintains a microfiche file of the literature entered into SARIS, and duplicate copies of out-of-print reports may be available on request. Naturally, we cannot fill requests for literature which is copyrighted (such as books or journal articles) or whose distribution is restricted.

This literature is on order. It is not in our system. Please order from NTIS or other available source as indicated.

Radiation Shielding Literature

Health Phys., 70, 706-711 . . . Complete Decay of Radionuclides: Implications for Low-Level Waste Disposal in Municipal Landfills. . . . ; Meck, R.A. . . . May 1996 . . . Science and Technology Systems, Bethesda, MD.

Health Phys., 70, 714-716 . . . On Designing Room Shielding for Total-Body Irradiation. . . . Barish, R.J. . . . May 1996 . . . The Cancer Institute, Jamaica, NY.

Health Phys., 70, 735-740 . . . Estimation of Radiation Doses for Atomic-Bomb Survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry. . . . Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Ito, C.; Kamada, N. . . . May 1996 . . . Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; Hiroshima A-bomb Casualty Council Health Management Promotion Center, Hiroshima, Japan.

Nucl. Technol., 114, 235-245 . . . Near-Field and Far-Field Migration of Radionuclides from a Shallow Land Burial Facility. . . . Nair, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M. . . . May 1996 . . . Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Bombay, India.

Nucl. Technol., 114, 254-271 . . . Investigation of 14C Release in an Engineered Low-level Waste Disposal Facility. . . . Yim, M.S.; Simonson, S.A.; Sullivan, T.M. . . . May 1996 . . . North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

KEK Preprint 95-213 . . . Effects of the Photon Cross Sections and Energy-Absorption Coefficients of Air to the Gamma-Ray Point Isotropic Exposure Buildup Factors. . . . Hirayama, H. . . . February 1996 . . . National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken, Japan . . . . . . To be published in Nuclear Science Engineering.

NCRP REPORT No. 124 . . . Sources and Magnitude of Occupational and Public Exposures from Nuclear Medicine Procedures. . . . . . . March 1996 . . . National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

ORNL/TM-13133; NUREG/CR-6413 . . . Analysis of the Irradiation Data for A302B and A533B Correlation Monitor Materials. . . . Wang, J.A. . . . April 1996 . . . Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.