Radiation Safety Information Computational Center
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Post Office Box 2008
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6362
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UT-Battelle, LLC
for the U.S. Department of Energy
under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

Phone No. 865-574-6176
FAX 865-574-6182
Internet: PDC@ORNL.GOV
WWW: http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/rsic.html

No. 431  January 2001
"A man who dares to waste one hour of life has not discovered the value of life." 
-- Darwin
Thank you, Bob Roussin!

On November 30, 2000, Bob Roussin retired after 32 years of dedicated service at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bob spent the summer of 1966 in the Neutron Physics Division (NPD) of ORNL working with Vic Cain on a Monte Carlo development project and returned in December 1968 as a full-time staff member in RSIC. Under the guidance of David Trubey, he assumed the Data Coordination activities for RSIC and subsequently became involved in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in 1970. He served as the chairman of the Shielding Subcommittee and Formats and Processing Committee and also served two years as CSEWG chairman when Charlie Dunford was on assignment at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna.

Betty Maskewitz trained Bob to assume the leadership of RSIC in 1983 until 1996, when the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program was established. At that time the Radiation Information Analysis Section was formed within Mike Kuliasha's Computational Physics and Engineering Division (CPED) with Bob as leader and Maurice Greene heading the Nuclear Data Base Management Group, Luiz Leal heading the Nuclear Data Group, and Bernadette Kirk heading RSICC.

Bob has stated that he has enjoyed working with all these organizations and that they all shared the characteristic of developing and providing technology for the solution of radiation transport and safety problems in forms that can be readily applied by the user. This approach has resulted in the efficient use of national resources to transfer research developments into effective uses by practitioners in the field.

In the wake of Bob's retirement, Bernadette L. Kirk is the new head of the Radiation Information Analysis Section as of December 1, 2000. Kirk joined ORNL in 1974 and has most recently been director of the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). She is the current chair of the American Nuclear Society's Professional Women in ANS Committee and won an ANS Women's Achievement Award in 1998.

Hamilton T. Hunter assumed the position of RSICC Director as of December 1, 2000. Hunter succeeds Bernadette Kirk. Hunter has been at ORNL for 17 years and has been actively involved in both fusion and fission research. Before coming to RSICC, Hunter worked at the Tower Shielding Facility. RSICC looks forward to Hamilton's leadership.


One new and two newly frozen packages were added to the computer software collection during the month, one which was a foreign contribution.


Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contributed a newly frozen version of this code system for multilevel R-matrix fits to neutron data using Bayes' Equations. SAMMY-M5, released October 2000, differs from previous versions in many respects. One change, the combination of the various segments into one large program, has a positive effect on portability of the program. This change has also resulted in increased computation speed; SAMMY Version M5 runs will require shorter CPU time than the same runs with earlier versions.

Historically, SAMMY has been used for analyses of neutron-induced cross section data in the resolved resonance region, and the code continues to be useful for that purpose. One of the new features available with M5 should greatly extend the usefulness of the code: the option now exists to include charged-particle interactions. Hence, SAMMY can now be used to analyze, for example, (n,alpha) or (alpha,n) reactions in addition to previously available options: transmission, elastic (both angle-integrated and differential), fission, inelastic, capture, and absorption cross sections, eta, self-indication, and certain types of integral data.

Cross sections in the unresolved-resonance region can also be analyzed using SAMMY. The capability was borrowed from Froehner's FITACS code. Recent improvements in this area include more exact calculation of partial derivatives, normalization options for the experimental data, and increased flexibility for input of experimental data.

The code runs on the IBM RS/6000, the DEC Alpha computers under both Open/VMS and OSF1 operating systems, the Sun UltraSparc, the HP, the PC using the Red Hat Linux operating system, and on the PC running Windows. The included PC executables were created on a Dell Dimension 4100 operating under Windows 2000 with Compaq Visual Fortran Professional Edition 6.5. All Unix systems require a Fortran compiler to create executables. The code was tested under AIX 4.3.3 using the XLF 6.1 Fortran compiler and under HP-UX B.10.20 using f77 10.2. The Linux version was installed under RedHat Vers. 6.1 with g77 Vers. 0.5.21. The package is transmitted on CD with a compressed tar file which contains source codes, scripts, and test cases for Unix and with a self-extracting compressed file containing source codes, executables, batch files, and test cases for the PC version. References: "READ.ME" (October 2000) and ORNL/TM-9179/R5 (October 2000). Fortran; DEC Alpha (Unix and VMS), IBM RS/6000, Linux, Sun, HP, INTEL PC (P00158/IRISC/06).


Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, contributed this code system for calculating fast neutron spectra and multigroup cross-sections from ENDF/B data. MC2-2 solves the neutron slowing-down equations using basic neutron data derived from ENDF/B data files to determine fundamental mode spectra for use in generating multigroup neutron cross sections. The current edition includes the ability to treat all ENDF/B-V and -VI data representations. It accommodates high-order P scattering representations and provides numerous capabilities such as isotope mixing, delayed neutron processing, free-format input, and flexibility in output data selection.

The MC2 libraries in this distribution are ENDF/B-V derived. This edition supersedes previous releases of the MC22 program and the earlier MC22 program. Improved physics algorithms and increased computational efficiency are incorporated. Input data files required by MC2-2 may be generated from ENDF/B data by the code ETOE-2. The hyper-fine-group integral transport theory module of MC2-2, RABANL, is an improved version of the RABBLE/RABID codes. Many of the MC2-2 modules are used in the SDX code.

SUN and IBM RS/6000 versions of the MC2-2 code are distributed in this package together with the MC2-2 libraries processed through ETOE-2 using ENDF/B-V data. Fortran 77 and C compilers are required to build an executable. This release runs under SOLARIS 2.5 and 2.6 (for SPARCStations) and AIX 3.2 and 4.3.3 on the IBM RS/6000. The package is transmitted on a CD which includes the source, scripts, test cases and data libraries written in a GNU compressed tar file. References: ANL-8144 (June 1976) and ANL Memorandum (January 13, 1981), (August 10, 1993), (September 1, 1993), (November 17, 1993), and (August 10, 1993). Fortran 77 and C; Sun (P00350/SUN05/01).


Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, Minsk-Sosny, Belarus, and the Institut fur Radiumforschung und Kerphysik der Osterreichischen, Akademie der Wissenchaften, Vienna, Austria, through the OECD NEA Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, contributed the STAPREF and STAPRE code systems. STAPRE calculates energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and a gamma-ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. In addition to the activation cross sections, particle and gamma-ray production spectra are calculated. Isomeric state populations and production cross sections for gamma rays from low excited levels are obtained, too. For fission a single or a double humped barrier may be chosen.

Integrations in connection with the evaporation formulas are approximated by summation over energy bins. For the gamma-ray cascades a recursion formula is employed. The width-fluctuation correction factor is calculated by use of Simpson's rule.

STAPRE is written in Fortran IV and ran on Vax under VMS or a CDC under NOS/BE. STAPREF is written in Fortran 90 and runs on IBM PC and compatibles. A STAPREF executable produced by the Lahey Fortran 95 version 5.5 compiler is provided in the package. The package is transmitted on one DS/HD diskette with a self-extracting compressed DOS file that includes a STAPREF PC executable, STAPREF and STAPRE source code, documentation and sample problems. References: IRK 76/01 (1976) and input description. STAPRE: Fortran IV; CDC 7600, Vax 6000 and STAPREF: Fortran 90; IBM PC (P00498/PC586/00).


RSICC attempts to keep its users/contributors advised of conferences, courses, and symposia in the field of radiation protection, transport, and shielding through this section of the newsletter. Should you be involved in the planning/organization of such events, feel free to send your announcements and calls for papers via email to finchsy@ornl.gov with "conferences" in the subject line. Please include the announcement in its native format as an attachment to the message. If the meeting is on a website, please include the url.

Every attempt is made to ensure that the links provided in the Conference and Calendar sections of this newsletter are correct and live. However, the very nature of the web creates the possibility that the links may become unavailable. In that case, please call or mail the contact provided.

MCNP™ Workshops for the Year 2001

The following is the 2001 schedule for Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Workshops. These classes are taught by the team who develops and maintains MCNP.
27 Feb-2 March Advanced Class Los Alamos National Laboratory
2-6 April Level to be decided Imperial College, London, UK
5-8 June Introductory Class Los Alamos National Laboratory

Introductory classes are for people who have little or no experience with MCNP. The classes survey the features of MCNP so the beginning user will be exposed to the capabilities of the program, and will have hands-on experience at running the code to solve rudimentary problems. Course topics include Basic Geometry, Source Definitions, Output (Tallies) Specification and Interpretation, Advanced Geometry (repeated structures specification), Variance Reduction Techniques, Statistical Analysis, Criticality, Plotting of Geometry, Tallies, and Particle Tracks, and Neutron/Photon/Electron Physics.

Advanced classes are for people with MCNP experience who want to extend their knowledge and gain depth of understanding. Most areas of MCNP operation will be discussed in detail, with emphasis on Advanced Geometry, Advanced Variance Reduction Techniques, and other Advanced features of the program. Time will be available to discuss approaches to specific problems of interest to students.

NOTE: While MCNP supports a number of platforms, class computers are usually Unix machines. Experience with Unix will be helpful to the student but is not essential.

Costs For Domestic U.S. Classes: Cost for the class is $1,800. There is a $300 discount if payment is received by the close of registration/early payment deadline for each class. Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) provides the code and data package and documentation for a reduced fee of $310 to all who complete the class and free to students employed by sponsors that fund RSICC.

The class fee includes a notebook with all class viewgraphs (over 300) and handouts. Dinner the first evening is included as part of your registration fee and snacks and refreshments are provided during class breaks. Lodging will be available for roughly $75 per night. Information will be sent by follow-up letter or email when we receive your registration information.

All classes provide interactive computer learning. Time will be available to discuss individual questions and problems with MCNP experts. To register for the LANL classes via the Internet, go to http://www.solutionsbyhqc.com/mcnpform.html. For registration information on the European classes, contact Enrico Sartori, OECD/NEA at sartori@nea.fr.



DATES: May 14-18, 2001 and October 15-19, 2001

FEE: $1,700 per person (includes the MCNP™ code package). Price subject to change without notice. Payments must be received at least 45 days before class. If payment has not been received by the due date, your space may be given up to the next available person on our waiting list. Refunds are available up to 30 days before the class date.

PLACE: The Canyon School Complex, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Contacts: Inquiries regarding registration and class space availability should be made to David Seagraves, 505-667-4959, fax: 505-665-6071, e-mail: dseagraves@lanl.gov. Technical questions may be directed to Dick Olsher, 505-667-3364, e-mail: dick@lanl.gov. For further information and registration on the Internet, visit: http://drambuie.lanl.gov/~esh4/mcnp.htm.

The Los Alamos MCNP code is a general and powerful Monte Carlo transport code for photons, neutrons, and electrons. MCNP can be safely described as the "industry standard" with more than 600 person-years of development effort behind it. It is supported on a variety of platforms and is now accessible to Health Physicists, Medical Physicists, and Rad Engineers using desktop or laptop personal computers. This 4.5 day course introduces the basic concepts of Monte Carlo, demonstrates how to put together a MCNP input file, and illustrates some health and medical physics applications of the code. No prior knowledge of Monte Carlo is assumed.

MCNP is ideally suited to the needs of professionals interested in performing radiation shielding and skyshine calculations, detector simulation studies, or dosimetry. With a little practice and study of the examples, many will find they are able to solve problems that have, in the past, been out of reach. Problems that involve a complex geometry can be easily solved using MCNP (e.g., designing a maze entrance to a radiation room). Calculations are based on detailed physics models and very accurate cross section tables that require no energy group compromises to be made.

A copy of the MCNP code package is included in the price of the course. Your copy of MCNP will be provided directly from the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge. Only RSICC is authorized to distribute licensed copies of the MCNP code package. All of the input and output files for the class demonstrations will be provided for self-study on a diskette. The course will focus on providing a practical boost toward learning the program and guiding the student toward useful applications. Extensive practice sessions are scheduled using a personal computer in class.

The course will be taught by Dick Olsher and David Seagraves of the Health Physics Measurements Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Additional staff help will be provided by members of the Health Physics Measurements Group. Students will be provided with a comprehensive class manual and a diskette containing all of the practice problems. This course has been granted 32 Continuing Education Credits by the AAHP.

Visual Editor Classes Offered

The Visual Editor is a powerful visualization tool that can be used to rapidly create complex Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP 4C) geometry models, including lattices, universes, fills, and other geometrical transformations. The Visual Editor can:

Display MCNP 4C geometries in multiple plot windows.
Create surfaces and cells to build a geometry.
Create materials using the local xsdir file.
Store commonly used materials in a material library.
Sub-divide large cells into smaller cells.
Full geometry capabilities including universes and lattices.
Interactively set cell importances from the plot window.
Display source points and collision points in the plot window.

A four day class is to be held March 19-22, 2001 in Richland, Washington. The class combines teaching on MCNP physics, along with instructions on how to use the Visual Editor. Computer demonstrations and exercises will focus on creating and interrogating input files with the Visual Editor. Demonstrations of advanced visualization work using MCNP will also be made. The class will be taught on Pentium computers running the Linux operating system or Windows NT version if it is working by then. Since the class will provide an overview of MCNP, new users are invited to attend, however, the emphasis of the class will be on the use of the visual editor. Attendees are encouraged to bring their own input files for viewing and modifying in the visual editor. For a more detailed description of the class, lodging, and course fees, please go to: http://www.pnl.gov/eshs/software/ved/class1.html.

A three day class is to be held October 8-10, 2001, also in Richland. This class will only focus on the use of the visual editor. Users should already be familiar with the use of MCNP. Computer demonstrations and exercises will focus on creating and interrogating input files with the Visual Editor. Demonstrations of advanced visualization work using MCNP will also be made. The class will be taught on Pentium computers running the Linux operating system or Windows NT version if it is working by then. Attendees are encouraged to bring their own input files for viewing and modifying in the visual editor. Further information on this class can be located at: http://www.pnl.gov/eshs/software/ved/class2.html.

If you have any questions concerning these classes, please contact Randy Schwarz at 509-372-4042 or email: randy.schwarz@pnl.gov.

SCALE Training Course Schedule for 2001

The SCALE staff at ORNL will be offering two training courses in the spring of 2001. The courses will emphasize hands-on experience solving practical problems on PCs. There will be workgroups of two persons each. No prior experience in the use of SCALE is required to attend. The registration fee is $1800 for one course or $2700 for both fall courses ($300 discount if you register at least one month before the course). A copy of the SCALE software and manual on CD may be obtained for an additional fee of $310. Registrations will be accepted on a first-come basis. Registration forms submitted directly from the Web are preferred. Registration via fax (815-327-6460, yes, the fax area code is different!) or emailing Kay Lichtenwalter at lichtenwalsk@ornl.gov is also acceptable. The registration fee must be paid by check, traveler's checks, or credit card (VISA or MasterCard only).

Class size is limited and courses are subject to cancellation if minimum enrollment is not obtained one month prior to the course. Course fees are refundable up to one month before each class. Classes are cosponsored by RSICC. Foreign nationals must register at least six weeks in advance. For further information, contact Kay at 865-574-9213 or visit the web, http://www.cped.ornl.gov/scale/ trcourse.html.

SCALE Shielding and Source Terms Course (April 23-27, 2001) and (October 15-19, 2001)

The SCALE Shielding and Source Terms Course emphasizes SAS2 and ORIGEN-ARP (depletion/source-term generation) and SAS3 and SAS4 using MORSE-SGC (3-D Monte Carlo neutron/gamma shielding). It also covers SAS1/XSDRNPM (1-D neutron/gamma shielding) and QADS/QAD-CGGP (3-D point kernel gamma shielding).

SCALE KENO-VI Criticality Course (April 30-May 4, 2001)

(The KENO-Va information that was listed here in the December 2000 issue was incorrect). The SCALE KENO VI Criticality Course focuses on KENO VI and the associated criticality analysis sequences in CSAS6. KENO VI is the latest version of the KENO Monte Carlo criticality safety code. KENO VI contains a much larger set of geometrical bodies than KENO V.a, including cuboids, cylinders, spheres, cones, dodecahedrons, elliptical cylinders, ellipsoids, hoppers, parallelpipeds, planes, rhomboids, and wedges. The flexibility of KENO VI is increased by allowing the following features: intersecting geometry regions; hexagonal as well as cuboidal arrays; regions, holes, arrays, and units rotated to any angle and truncated to any position; and the use of an array boundary that intersects the array. Users should be aware that the added geometry features in KENO VI can result in significantly longer run times than KENO V.a. A KENO VI problem that can be modeled in KENO V.a will typically run four times as long in KENO VI as in KENO V.a. Thus the new version VI is not a replacement for the existing version V.a, but an additional version for more complex geometries that could not be modeled previously. Two-dimensional color plots of the geometry model can be generated in KENO V.a, or the model may be viewed using the KENO3D 3-D visualization tool.

SCALE KENO-Va Criticality Course (October 22-26, 2001)

The SCALE KENO V.a Criticality Course focuses on KENO V.a and the associated criticality analysis sequences in CSAS. KENO V.a is a widely used 3-D multigroup Monte Carlo criticality safety analysis code that has been in use for approximately 15 years. KENO V.a is a fast, easy-to-use code that allows users to build complex geometry models using basic geometrical bodies of cuboids, spheres, cylinders, hemispheres, and hemicylinders. Two-dimensional color plots of the geometry model can be generated.


February 2001

2001 International ALARA Symposium, Feb. 4-7, 2001, Anaheim, CA, sponsored by the North American Technical Center and others. Contact: David Miller, NATC, (tel 217-935-8881, ext. 3880, fax 217-935-4632, email david_ miller@illinova.com).

Introduction Course to MCBEND Radiation Transport Software, Feb. 6-9, 2001, Winfrith, United Kingdom, sponsored by AEA Technology, Winfrith, UK. Contact: Simon Aplin (tel + 44 (0) 1305 203634, fax +44 (0) 1305 202746, email simon.aplin@aeat.co.uk url www.aeat.co.uk/answers).

Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2001), Feb. 11-15, 2001, Albuquerque, NM, sponsored by the Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies at the University of New Mexico. Contact: ISNPS-UNM, (tel 505-277-0446, fax 505-277-2814, email isnps@unm.edu, url www-chne.unm.edu/isnps).

Fire and Safety 2001: Fire Protection and Prevention in Nuclear Facilities, Feb. 12-14, 2001, London, England, sponsored by Nuclear Engineering International. Contact: Julie Rossiter, Wilmington Publishing, Ltd., Wilmington House, Church Hill, Wilmington, Dartford, Kent, DA2 7EF, U.K. (tel +44 1322 394706, fax +44 1322 276 743, email conferences@wilmington.co.uk).

21st Century Biodosimetry: Quantifying the Past and Predicting the Future, Feb. 22, 2001, Arlington, VA, sponsored by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Contact: William M. Beckner (tel 301-657-2652, fax 301-907-8768, url www.ncrp.com).

Waste Management 2001 Symposium, Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 2001, Tucson, AZ, sponsored by WM Symposia, Inc. Contact: LOI, Inc. (tel 520-292- 5652, fax 520-292-9080, email info@laser-options.com, url www.wmsym.org).

Fourth Urals Seminar on Radiation Damage Physics, Feb. 25-Mar. 3, 2001, Snezhinsk, Russia, sponsored by the Institute of Metal Physics. Contact: C.M. Elliott, foreign secretary (tel 217-244-7725, fax 217-244-4293, email cmelliot@uiuc.edu, url www.physics.uiuc.edu/Research/ Workshops/4th_Urals/).

Food Irradiation 2001, Feb. 26-28, 2001, Washington, D.C., sponsored by Intertech. Contact: Janine Scheld, (tel 207-781-9617; fax 207-781-2150, email jscheld@interteschusa.com, url www.intertechusa.com).

2001: A Nuclear Odyssey, The 2001 ANS/HPS Student Conference, Mar 29-Apr 1, 2001, Texas A&M University. Contact: Co-Chairs, Don Todd and Shawn Bennett (tel (979) 845-4109, fax (979) 845-6443, email ans@tamu.edu url, http://ans.tamu.edu/conference/).

April 2001

Implications for Radiation Measurement Science, Atmospheric and Biospheric Processes, and Health Effects from Worldwide Fallout, Apr. 4-5, 2001, Arlington, VA, sponsored by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Contact: William M. Beckner (tel 301-657-2652, fax 301-907-8768, url www.ncrp.com).

Ninth International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, Apr. 29-May 3, 2001, Las Vegas, NV, sponsored by ANS and others. Contact: Daniel Bullen, IHLRWM general Chair, (tel 515-294-6000, fax 515-294-3261, email dbullen@iaste.edu).

Radiation Transport Calculations using the EGS Monte Carlo System, Apr. 30 - May 3, 2001, Ottawa, Canada. Contact: Blake Walters, Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, K1A 0R6. (tel (613) 993-2715, fax (613) 952-9865, e-mail bwalters@irs.phy.nrc.ca, url www.irs.inms.nrc.ca/inms/irs/papers/egsnrc/brochure.html).

May 2001

The ANSWERS Software Service Reactor Physics, Radiation Shielding and Nuclear Criticality Annual Seminar, May 15-17, 2001, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom, sponsored by the AEA Technology. Contact: Simon Aplin (tel + 44 (0) 1305 203634, fax +44 (0) 1305 202746, email simon.aplin@aeat.co.uk url www.aeat.co.uk/answers).

June 2001

ANS Annual Meeting, June 17-21, 2001, Milwaukee, WI, (url www.ans.org).


The following literature cited has been reviewed and placed in the RSICC Information Storage and Retrieval Information System (SARIS), now searchable on the RSICC web server (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/SARIS.html). This early announcement is made as a service to the shielding community. Copies of the literature are not distributed by RSICC. They may generally be obtained from the author or from a documentation center such as the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. For literature listed as available from INIS contact INIS Clearinghouse, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna.

Radiation Shielding Literature

Health Phys., 79, 666-674 . . . Environmental Releases of Radioactivity and the Incidence of Thyroid Disease at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. . . Nedveckaite, T.; Motiejunas, S.; Kucinskas, V.; Mazeika, J.; Filistovic, V.; Jusciene, D.; . . . December 2000 . . . Institute of Physics, Lithuanian Ministry of Environment, Vilnius University, Institute of Geology, all of Vilnius, Lithuania; Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Health Phys., 79, 675-681 . . . Radiation Doses During CT Fluoroscopy. . . . Nickoloff, E.L.; Khandji, A.; Dutta, A. . . . December 2000 . . . Columbia University P&S and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

Health Phys., 79, 682-690 . . . The Impact of Chernobyl Fallout on the Southern Saami Reindeer Herders of Norway in 1996. . . . Mehli, H.; Skuterud, L.; Mosdol, A.; Tonnessen, A. . . . December 2000 . . . Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras, Norway; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Health Phys., 79, 691-696 . . . Source Areas of Airborne 7Be and 210Pb Measured in Northern Finland. . . . Paatero, J.; Hatakka, J. . . . December 2000 . . . Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Health Phys., 79, 703-711 . . . Electret Ion Chambers for Estimating Alpha Particle Energy. . . . Dua, S.K.; Reddy, M.V.; Szerszen, P.; Rose, R.W.; Roelant, D.; Ebadian, M.A. . . . December 2000 . . . Florida International University, Miami, FL.

Health Phys., 79, 722-727 . . . Effective Thresholds for Induction of Skeletal Malignancies by Radionuclides. . . . Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Fisher, D.R.; Schlenker, R.; Miller, S.C. . . . December 2000 . . . University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Madison Research Group, Inc.; Willowbrook, IL.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 325-338 . . . Triga Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel. . . . Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zagar, T. . . . December 2000 . . . Institute Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 339-351 . . . A Model for Calculating the Accident Washout Factor for a Costal Nuclear Power Plant Site. . . . Erbang Hu, Rentai Yao, Zhanrong Gao, Shuxian Wang, Gang Jiang, Jia Yi Chen . . . December 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Shanxi, China; Peking University, Beijing, China.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 352-365 . . . Optimization of the Surveillance Test Interval of the Safety Systems at the Plant Level. . . . Yang, J-E.; Sung, T-Y.; Jin, Y. . . . December 2000 . . . Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Korea.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 366-374 . . . The Effect of Measurement Bias of Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations for Wipp TRUPACT-II Shipments. . . . Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D. . . . December 2000 . . . Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 403-412 . . . Dynamic Rod Worth Measurement. . . . Chao, Y.A.; Chapman, D.M.; Hill, D.J.; Grobmyer, L.R. . . . December 2000 . . . Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC., Pittsburgh, PA.

Prog. Nucl. Energy, 36, 367-378 . . . An Assessment of WIMS Method for Computing Collision Probabilities in One-Dimensional Annular Systems. . . . Leite, S.Q.B. . . . December 2000 . . . Commissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Coordenacao de Reatores, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

IAEA-RDS-3/13 . . . Nuclear Research Reactors in the World. Reference Data Series No. 3 . . . September 2000 . . . IAEA, Vienna, Austria. . . . IAEA Publications.

NEA/WPEC-14 . . . Processing and Validation of Intermediate Energy Evaluated Data Files. . . Koning, A.J.; ed. . . . 2000 . . . NEA . . . A report by the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee.

NUREG/CR-6686; ORNL/TM-1999/322 . . . Experience with the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross-Section Libraries. . . . Bowman, S.M.; Jordan, W.C.; Mincey, J.F.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M. . . . October 2000 . . . Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.