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SINBAD-2022: Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database.

Abstracts for individual benchmarks:






Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 

Many of the organizations that contributed to this benchmark compilation are listed in the index file SINBADIS.htm.



SINBAD began in 1992–93, prompted by the continued closure of experimental facilities worldwide. The loss of benchmark experimental facilities jeopardizes the future of new shielding data. Furthermore, the loss of lab notes and/or logbook records from poor document storage and/or aging—together with the loss of guidance from retirements of key experimental staff— means that complete benchmark data is at a premium under today’s strict quality assurance requirements. The decision was made to collect, recompile, and distribute benchmark information in formats acceptable to the international community in an attempt to preserve and disseminate the information. The data integrity was checked, and reference sources were examined for self-consistency. At times, full benchmark information was gathered from multiple sources, including personal contacts and laboratory logbooks.

The guidelines developed by the Benchmark Problems Group of the American Nuclear Society Standards Committee (ANS-6) on formats for benchmark problem descriptions have been followed. SINBAD data include benchmark information on (1) the experimental facility and the source; (2) the benchmark geometry and composition; and (3) the detection system, measured data, and an error analysis. A reference section is included with the data. Relevant graphical information, such as experimental geometry or spectral data, is included. All information that is compiled for inclusion with SINBAD has been verified for accuracy and reviewed by two scientists.

The data in the RSICC SINBAD-2022 package were received through the Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEADB) and correspond to Data Bank packages:

                        • NEA-1517 SINBAD REACTOR (Abstract last modified 29-MAY-2020)

This release includes consistency changes and update for packages NEA-1517/095 – 104.



SINBAD is an electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily retrieve and incorporate the data into their calculations. The high accuracy of benchmark experimental data allows checks for quality assurance in user’s computations or with new experimental results. The user may find a lack of experimental data in some energy regions, which could become a focus for future computations and experiments. New data libraries containing revised cross sections can be verified and validated, drawing comparisons to previous cross section data releases. New information on benchmark results—such as new computations, revised data results, and errors in data generation—will be provided as updates to this library, so users will find up-to-date applications in computational-ready formats.



An international effort between the OECD NEA and ORNL Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) and invaluable contributions from many international nuclear data experts to the compilation, validation, and review of the data combined to create this database. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross section libraries or radiation transport codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user-friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity.

This release of SINBAD includes a large set of 47 fission shielding benchmarks, 31 fusion neutronics shielding benchmarks, and 23 accelerator shielding benchmarks. The experimental results are distributed in tabular ASCII format that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use.

The benchmarks provide information to fully describe the experimental parameters in a modern-day computational model. Relevant engineering details of the experimental configuration are included with the physics equations and theory to provide the user with an understanding of the principles of the benchmark and the manner in which data were collected. The full benchmark information includes the source of radiation, its energy, angle, and strength; the materials tested and their compositions, tolerances, temperatures, and physical arrangement; and the detectors, their locations, data results, resolution limits, response curves, and unfolding code references.  Included are statistical error analyses of the measurements. 



The SINBAD retrieval system is an HTML-indexed and hyperlinked table, sorted alphabetically by shield material, year of publication, laboratory, shield-type, and directory name. The abstract is hyperlinked to the data tables and experimental documents within each of the subdirectories. 



HTML, PDF, and ASCII text files; PC, UNIX Workstations, MAC (D00237MNYCP06). Data files may be used in PC, UNIX workstations, or MAC systems. The experimental results are distributed in tabular ASCII format that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use. The size of each benchmark may range from a few hundred kilobytes to over a megabyte depending on the number of associated graphical and tabular files. There are 100 benchmarks in this release, which has a total disk space requirement of approximately 3.35 GB. Some special viewers may be required to see certain data files.



Run times vary.



a.         Documentation:

            Sinbadis.htm - index (Apr 2019)

I.Kodeli, E. Sartori and B. Kirk, “SINBAD - Shielding Benchmark Experiments - Status and Planned Activities,” Proceedings of the ANS 14th Biennial Topical Meeting of Radiation Protection and Shielding Division, Carlsbad, New Mexico (April 3-6, 2006).


b.         Other useful documentation:

SINBAD abstracts which specify major components of each benchmark are available at

Ivo Kodeli, Kodeli, Hamilton Hunter, Enrico Sartori, “Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry Experiments Updates in the SINBAD Database,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry (2005), Vol 116, No.1–4, pp.558–561




SINBAD INDEX - Sorted by Shielding



Reactor Shielding (47)


Winfrith Iron Benchmark (ASPIS)

Winfrith Iron 88 Benchmark (ASPIS)

Winfrith Graphite Benchmark (ASPIS)

Winfrith Water/Iron Benchmark (ASPIS-PCA REPLICA)

Winfrith Water Benchmark

Winfrith Neutron-Gamma Ray Transport through Water/Steel Arrays (ASPIS)

NESDIP-2 Benchmark (ASPIS)

NESDIP-3 Benchmark (ASPIS)

JANUS Phase I (Neutron Transport Through Mild and Stainless Steel)

JANUS Phase VIII (Neutron Transport Through Sodium and Mild Steel)

Ispra Sodium Benchmark (EURACOS)

Ispra Iron Benchmark (EURACOS)

Cadarache Sodium (HARMONIE)

Karlsruhe Iron Sphere

Wuerenlingen Iron Benchmark (PROTEUS)

Neutron Leakage from Water Spheres (NIST)

Streaming Through Ducts (IRI-TUB)

Gamma-ray Production Cross Sections from Thermal Neutron Capture in 14 elements and SS

Averaged Gamma-ray Production Cross Sections from Fast Neutron Capture in 14 ele. & SS

JASPER Advanced Reactor Axial Shield Measurements

JASPER Advanced Reactor Intermediate Heat Exchanger Measurements

JASPER Advanced Reactor Radial Shield Measurements

ORNL TSF Iron Broomstick

ORNL TSF Oxygen Broomstick

ORNL TSF Nitrogen Broomstick

ORNL TSF Sodium Broomstick

ORNL TSF Stainless Steel Broomstick

ORNL Neutron Transport Through Iron and SS - Part I

ORNL Neutron Transport in Thick Sodium

Pool Critical Assembly-Pressure Vessel Facility Benchmark

University of Illinois Iron Sphere (CF-252)

University of Tokyo-YAYOI Iron Slab

Radiation field parameters for pressure vessel monitoring in NRI LR-0 VVER-440 reactor

Radiation field parameters for pressure vessel monitoring in NRI LR-0 VVER-1000 reactor

Balakovo-3 VVER-1000 Ex-vessel Neutron Dosimetry Benchmark

VENUS-3 LWR-PVS Benchmark

H.B. Robinson-2 Pressure Vessel

Photon Leakage Spectra from Al, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zr, Pb, U238 Spheres

Photon Spectra from H2O, SiO2 and NaCl

IPPE Th shell with 14 MeV and Cf-252 source neutrons

Baikal-1 Skyshine Benchmark Experiment

NAÏADE 1 Graphite Benchmark (60cm) and NAÏADE 1 Iron Benchmark (60cm)

NAÏADE 1 Light Water Benchmark (60cm)

NAÏADE 1 Concrete Benchmark (60cm)

IPPE neutron transmission through bismuth shell

Photon Skyshine Experiment Benchmark

Polyethylene Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere: Subcritical Neutron and Gamma Measurements (~1987)


Fusion Neutronics Shielding (31)


Nickel Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

Iron Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

Aluminium Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

Silicon Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

Tungsten Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

Manganese Sphere (OKTAVIAN)

FNS Experimental data for fusion neutronics benchmark

FNS Integral Experiment on Graphite Cylindrical Assembly

FNS Liquid Oxygen

FNS Vanadium Cube

FNS Tungsten

FNS Skyshine

FNS Dogleg Duct Streaming

FNG-SS Shield (integral)

FNG-ITER Blanket Bulk Shield (integral)

FNG/TUD ITER Blanket Bulk Shield (spectra measurements)

FNG-ITER Neutron Streaming (integral)

FNG-ITER Dose Rate Experiment

FNG Silicon Carbide (integral)

FNG/TUD Silicon Carbide (spectra measurements)

FNG Tungsten (integral)

FNG HCPB Tritium Breeder Module (integral measurements)

FNG/TUD Tungsten (spectra measurements)

TUD Iron Slab Experiment

IPPE Vanadium Shells

IPPE Iron Shells

ORNL 14-MeV Neutron SS/Borated Poly Slab

University of Illinois Iron Sphere (D-T)

KANT Spherical Beryllium Shells

MEPhI empty slits streaming experiment

Juelich Li Metal Blanket Experiment


Accelerator Shielding (23)


Transmission Through Shielding Materials of Neutrons and Photons Generated by 52 MeV Protons

Transmission Through Shielding Materials of Neutrons and Photons Generated by 65 MeV Protons

Transmission of Medium Energy Neutrons Through Concrete Shields (AVF Cyclotron)

Neutron Production from Thick Targets of Carbon, Iron, Copper, and Lead by 30- and 52-MeV Protons

TIARA 40 and 65 MeV Neutron Transmission Through Iron, Concrete and Polyethylene

Radioactivity induced by GeV-Protons and Spallation Neutrons using AGS accelerator

Intermediate and High-Energy Accelerator Shielding Benchmarks


CERF Bonner Sphere Spectrometer Response to Charged Hadrons

CERF Radionuclide Production

CERF Residual Dose Rates

CERF Neutron Energy Spectra behind Shielding of a 120 GeV/c Hadron Beam Facility

CERN 200 and 400 GeV/c protons activation experiments

RIKEN Quasi-monoenergetic Neutron Field in 70-210 MeV Energy Range

KENS p-500 MeV shielding experiment using 4m Concrete at KEK

HIMAC experiments with He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe, Xe and Si ions on C, Al, Cu & Pb targets

HIMAC High energy Neutron (<800 MeV) Measurements in Iron

HIMAC High energy Neutron (<800 MeV) Measurements in Concrete

BEVALAC Experiment with Nb Ions on Nb & Al Targets

MSU experiment with He & C ions on Al target

Neutron Spectra Generated by 590-MeV Protons on a Thick Pb Target

ISIS Deep-Penetration Neutrons through Concrete and Iron Shields using p-800 MeV

Simulation of the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in biological cells, TEPC-FLUKA Comparison




December 2012, rev December 2013, February 2016, April 2022