RSICC CODE PACKAGE CCC-778
1. NAME AND TITLE
PHITS-2.88 - Particle and Heavy Ion
Transport Code System.
PROGRAMS included in the distribution:
software to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the
for calculating the time dependence of activation during and after
AceLibJ40: ASet of Neutron,
Photon and Electron Cross Section Libraries in the ACE Format based on JENDL-4.0 for
Continuous-energy Monte Carlo Codes.
Research Organization for Information
Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai,
Ibaraki, Japan, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki,
Japan, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, and Technische Universität Wien,
Austria through the OECD NEA Data Bank, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
FORTRAN 77, PC running Windows and Linux,
MAC, Windows and UNIX Workstation (C00778MNYCP05 NEA DB ID: NEA-1857/06).
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
can deal with the transport of almost all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons,
photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction
models and nuclear data libraries (Iwase et al 2002, Niita et al 2006,
Sihver et al 2010, Niita et al 2010, and Sato et al 2013). Geometrical
configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry). Various
quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be
deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally".
The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results
as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL.
The physical processes
included in PHITS can be divided into two categories, transport process and collision process.
In the transport process, PHITS can simulate motion of particles under external fields such as
magnetic and gravity. Without the external fields, neutral particles move along a straight
trajectory with constant energy up to the next collision point. However, charge particles
interact many times with electrons in the material losing energy and changing direction. PHITS
treats ionization processes not as collision but as a transport process, using the
continuous-slowing-down approximation. The average stopping power is given by the charge
density of the material and the momentum of the particle taking into account the fluctuations
of the energy loss and the angular deviation.
collision process, PHITS can simulate the elastic and inelastic interactions as
well as decay of particles. The total reaction cross section, or the life time
of the particle is an essential quantity in the determination of the mean free
path of the transport particle. According to the mean free path, PHITS chooses
the next collision point using the Monte Carlo method. To generate the
secondary particles of the collision, we need the information of the final
states of the collision. For neutron induced reactions in low energy region,
PHITS employs the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries
JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles,
we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon
et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to
simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u.
special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and
the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator
mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated
from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the
momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function
gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such
as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model
developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These
features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of
soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative
biological effectiveness of charged particles.
version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely
estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition
and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to
From version 2.76,
electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated.
Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were
implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be
considered in the JQMD model.
From version 2.82,
the function to read tetrahedral geometry (a kind of polygonal geometry) was implemented. Model
for describing nuclear resonance florescence (NRF) was implemented. Point estimator tally
(t-point) was developed.
From version 2.88, the functions to
output the tally results in xyz-mesh in the input format of ParaView has been implemented. The RI source
generation function and weight window generator have also been implemented.
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
Monte Carlo method is used.
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
PHITS cannot be
used for microscopic track-structure simulation, since PHITS2 adopts the
continuous-slowing-down approximation for the ionization process of charged
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
The running time depends on the
case and the calculation parameters. The sample problems took only a few
seconds to run.
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
Systems with 1 GB
available memory is required but 2 GB is recommended with 6 GB of available disk
6• OS: Windows (XP or higher), Mac (OS X v10.7 or higher), Linux or Unix.
• Editor that can show the line number.
• EPS viewer such as Ghostscript and GSview.
• Recommended Fortran compiler (optional): Intel Fortran 11.1 (or later) and
GNU Gfortran 4.71 (or later).
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
Windows or Linux Operating System,
with a Fortran77 compiler installed.
Koji Niita, Norihiro Matsuda,
Yosuke Iwamoto, Hiroshi Iwase, Tatsuhiko Sato,
Hiroshi Nakashima,Yukio Sakamoto And Lembit Sihver: PHITS: Particle and
Heavy Ion Transport code System, Version 2.23 (October 4, 2010, JAEA-Data/Code 2010-022).
PHITS Ver. 2.88 User's Manual
ANGEL Ver. 4.31 User's Manual.
Y. Iwamoto, K. Niita, Y.
Sakamoto, T. Sato and N. Matsuda: "Validation of the event generator mode
in the PHITS code and its application" International Conference on Nuclear
Data for Science and Technology 2007, DOI: 10.1051/ndata: 07417 (2007)
H. Iwase, K. Niita, T. Nakamura:
"Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport Monte
Carlo code", J. Nucl. Sci. and Technol. 39, 1142 (2002).
Y. Nara, N. Otuka, A. Ohnishi, K.
Niita, S. Chiba: "Relativistic nuclear collisions at 10A GeV energies from
p+Be to Au+Au with the hadronic cascade model", Phys. Rev. C61, 024901
K. Niita, T. Sato, H. Iwase, H.
Nose, H. Nakashima, L. Sihver: "PHITS- a particle and heavy ion transport
code system", Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).
K. Niita, S. Chiba, T. Maruyama, H.
Takada, T. Fukahori, Y. Nakahara and A. Iwamoto: "Analysis of the (N,xN')
reactions by quantum molecular dynamics plus statistical decay model",
Phys. Rev. C 52, 2620 (1995)
T. Sato, Y. Kase, R. Watanabe, K.
Niita and L. Sihver: "Biological dose estimation for charged-particle therapy
using an improved PHITS code coupled with a microdosimetric kinetic
model", Radiat. Res. 171, 107-117 (2009)
L. Sihver, T. Sato, K. Gustafsson,
D. Mancusi, H. Iwase, K. Niita, H. Nakashima, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Iwamoto and N.
Matsuda: "An update about recent developments of the PHITS code" Adv.
Space Res. 45, 892-899 (2010).
K. Shibata, O. Iwamoto, T.
Nakagawa, N. Iwamoto, A. Ichihara, S. Kunieda, S. Chiba, K. Furutaka, N. Otuka,
AT. Ohsawa, H. Matsunobu, A. Zukeran, S. Kamada and J. Katakura:
"JENDL-4.0: A New Library for Nuclear Science and Engineering", to be
published to J. Nucl. Sci. Technol.
K. Okumura et.al. "The
Libraries FSXLIB and MATXSLIB based on JENDL-4.0" to be appeared in
OF CODE PACKAGE
The package is transmitted on DVD including
the referenced documents, example problems, source code, and precompiled
executables for Mac and Windows.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
April 2011, rev: June 2013, May 2014, July 2015, February 2017
KEYWORDS: MONTE CARLO,
HEAVY IONS, NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATA, NUCLIDE TRANSPORT