1. NAME AND TITLE
CRRIS: Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System for Assessing Doses and Health Risks from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.
PRIMUS: Prepares radionuclide ingrowth matrices from user-specified sources.
ANEMOS: Estimates air concentrations and ground deposition rates for nuclides emitted to the atmosphere.
SUMIT: Interpolates and sums multiple ANEMOS results onto a master grid.
RETADD-II: Models long range atmospheric dispersion using a trajectory model with consistent treatment of deposition loss and species growth and decay.
DFSOIL: Calculates dose conversion factors for MLSOIL.
MLSOIL: Estimates effective ground surface concentrations for dose computations.
TERRA: Simulates transport of atmospherically released radionuclides through agriculture.
ANDROS: Computes doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides.
RADRSK.BCD: A file of dose and risk factors for 502 radionuclides written by RADRISK for use with ANDROS.
SITE: Direct access data file of default location specific agricultural, climatological, land use, and demographic parameters on a 1/2 x 1/2 degree longitude-latitude basis for the conterminous United States. This data is included in DLC-127/AGDATA.
ELEM.REV: Element specific data base of parameters for soil-water distribution, plant uptake and transport of beef and milk.
DECAY.DAT: Decay branching data from DLC-080/DRALIST.
DECAY.RAD: Photon energies and intensities from DLC-080/DRALIST.
UPW77.DAT: 1977 upper-air wind data for use with RETADD-II.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Science Application International Corporation, McLean, Virginia.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
Fortran 66 and 77 and Assembler; IBM (C00518I303300). Fortran 77 PC 586 (C00518PC58600).
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport.
Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and by the RETADD-II computer code for regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides.
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
SUMIT performs geometric interpolation. TERRA and MLSOIL are terrestrial transport compartment models. DFSOIL computes soil-layer-specific dose factors based on the point-kernel method. ANEMOS employs a Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model. RETADD-II is based on long-range trajectory estimates using upper-air wind data. ANEMOS, RETADD, TERRA, MLSOIL and ANDROS solve differential equations that describe decay and ingrowth. PRIMUS and ANDROS can be characterized as bookkeeping rather than computational programs.
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
ANEMOS is not to be used for short-term or accidental releases. It is appropriate only for chronic releases. It models only one source per run. Multiple ANEMOS results may be combined using SUMIT. MLSOIL does not allow upward transport of radionuclides. MLSOIL will truncate radionuclide chains of length greater than 20. All sample cases in this package are to be considered demonstration assessments. No special significance should be attached to the choices of parameters and options for these jobs.
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
Running times vary from about 2 cpu seconds for PRIMUS to 3.2 cpu minutes and 49,000 I/O's for an ANDROS run with one radionuclide and 315 locations. MLSOIL takes a great deal of computer time. The sample case exceeded the limit of 1.5 CPU hours. Users may elect to run the sample case for 5 minutes to generate a few lines of output to compare with that included in the package. The time and I/O estimates in the JCL files reflect requirements of running the sample cases on the IBM 3033.
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
CRRIS is operable on the IBM 3033 computer or personal computers.
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
On the IBM 3033, CRRIS was compiled under OS/VS2 using Version 2 of the IBM VS Fortran Compiler with the language level 66 option. SITEDA, which creates the random-access SITE data base, is written in Fortran 77. Optimization level used was 3. The random number generator is written in IBM assembler language. In 1998 the IBM 3033 version was updated to run in an MS-DOS box on an IBM-compatible PC under Windows 95/NT using the Absoft Fortran 77 for Windows95/WindowsNT V4.2, which was used to create the executables included in the package.
D. Raines, "Notes on CRRIS (CCC-518) for PC" (1998).
C. F. Baes, III, C. W. Miller, D. C. Kocher, A. L. Sjoreen, and B. D. Murphy, "An Introduction to CRRIS: A Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System for Assessing Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides," ORNL/TM-8573 (August 1985).
O. W. Hermann, et. al., "PRIMUS: A Computer Code for the Preparation of Radionuclide Ingrowth Matrices from User-Specified Sources," ORNL-5912 (October 1984).
C. W. Miller, et. al., "ANEMOS: A Computer Code to Estimate Air Concentrations and Ground Deposition Rates for the Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources," ORNL-5913 (November 1986).
C. L. Begovich, et. al., "SUMIT: A Computer Code to Interpolate and Sum Single Release Atmospheric Model Results onto a Master Grid," ORNL-5914 (October 1984).
C. F. Baes, III, et. al., "TERRA: A Computer Code for Simulating the Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides Through Agriculture," ORNL-5785 (November 1984).
B. D. Murphy, et. al., "RETADD-II: A Long Range Atmospheric Trajectory Model with Consistent Treatment of Deposition Loss and Species Growth and Decay," ORNL/CSD-99 (August 1984).
A. L. Sjoreen, et. al., "MLSOIL and DFSOIL - Computer Codes to Estimate Effective Ground Surface Concentrations for Dose Computations," ORNL-5974 (November 1984).
C. L. Begovich, et. al., "ANDROS: A Code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection," ORNL-5889 (November 1986).
11. CONTENTS OF CODE PACKAGE
Included are the referenced documents and seven (1.44 MB) diskettes in DOS format, which contain the source codes, JCL, sample input, data libraries, and output from the sample problem to transmit the IBM 3033 version. The PC version is transmitted on one CD as a self-extracting compressed DOS file and includes executables.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
October 1988, revised May 1990, November 1998.
KEYWORDS: AIRBORNE; ENVIRONMENTAL DOSE; GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL; INTERNAL DOSE; NUCLIDE TRANSPORT; RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY; RISK ASSESSMENT; MICROCOMPUTER