1. NAME AND TITLE
WRAITH: Code System for Calculating Internal and External Doses Resulting from an
Atmospheric Release of Radioactive Material.
Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
Fortran IV; UNIVAC 1100/44.
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
WRAITH calculates the atmospheric transport of radioactive material to each of a number of
downwind receptor points and the external and internal doses to a reference man at each of the receptor
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
The movement of the released material through the atmosphere is calculated using a bivariate
straight-line Gaussian distribution model with Pasquill values for standard deviations. The quantity of
material in the released cloud is modified during its transit time to account for radioactive decay and
daughter production. External doses due to exposure to the cloud can be calculated using a semi-infinite cloud approximation or a ``finite plume'' three-dimensional point-kernel numerical integration
technique. Internal doses due to acute inhalation are calculated using the ICRP Task Group Lung
Model and a four-segmented gastro-intestinal tract model. Translocation of the material between body
compartments and retention in the body compartments are calculated using multiple exponential
retention functions. Internal doses to each organ are calculated as sums of cross-organ doses with each
target organ irradiated by radioactive material in a number of source organs. All doses are calculated
in rads with separate values determined for high-LET and low-LET radiation.
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
Doses to only three target organs (total body, red bone marrow, and the lungs) are considered and
acute inhalation is the only pathway for material to enter the body. The dose response model is not
valid for high-LET radiation other than alphas. The high-LET calculation ignores the contributions
of neutrons, spontaneous fission fragments, and alpha recoil nuclei.
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
No study has been made by RSIC of typical running times for WRAITH. A discussion of
expensive, precise vs. cheap, approximate calculations is provided in Appendix D of the referenced
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
WRAITH is operable on the univac 1100/44 computer with interactive system.
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
A Fortran IV compiler is required.
Installation-dependent routines must be supplied for the following subroutines:
SECOND used to find the time of program execution
DATE used to find the date of the job run
TIME used to find the time of day of the job run
BANRF prints the banner on the title page.
Dummy routines could be substituted without affecting the calculations.
R. I. Scherpelz, F. J. Borst, G. R. Hoenes, "WRAITH A Computer Code for Calculating Internal
and External Doses Resulting from an Atmospheric Release of Radioactive Material,"
NUREG/CR-1690 PNL-3382 (August 1980).
11. CONTENTS OF CODE PACKAGE
Included are the referenced document and one (1.2MB) DOS diskette which contains the source
code and associated libraries, plus output from the sample problems.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
KEYWORDS: AIRBORNE; RADIOACTIVITY RELEASE; RADIONUCLIDES; REACTOR ACCIDENT; INTERNAL DOSE; GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL; ALPHA PARTICLES; KERNEL; ENVIRONMENTAL DOSE