1. NAME AND TITLE
RADRISK: Estimates Radiation Doses and Health Effects from Inhalation or Ingestion of
The RADRISK code has been developed as a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes:
CCC-392/INREM II, developed at ORNL, and CAIRD, developed by the EPA (EPA 520/4-78-012,
1978). The version of RADRISK included in this package has numerous minor differences from that
described in the reference document, but the basic code structure remains unchanged. One important
difference in the input data requirements is that ``Respiratory Lymph'' is no longer required as a
mandatory source and target tissue; rather, lymph activity is now included in computing dose to lung.
The dosimetric and health effects data base output on unit 25 is read as input by DARTAB which is
included in CCC-476/CAAC.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Royal Observatory of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
Fortran IV; IBM 3033 (A). Fortran 77; Data General MV (B).
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
Radioactive materials deposited in human tissues emit energy as they decay. This may be absorbed
by the tissue possibly resulting in biological damage, such as the development of cancer. RADRISK
estimates radiation dose rates to various human organs from inhalation or ingestion of radioactive
materials, and the health effects in a reference population as a result of this exposure.
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
The amount of radioactive material present in various organs as a function of time is computed by
solving a set of differential equations. This activity is multiplied by dosimetric S factors to compute
the dose rate. The dose rates over the lifetime of the cohort are then processed through a life-table
actuarial analysis to estimate incremental cancer deaths in the cohort, taking into consideration all
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
Running time will depend on the nature of the exposure case of concern. Illustrative examples for
the IBM 3033 version are given below for a wide range of radionuclides; each case consists of chronic
inhalation of the given radionuclide over the lifetime of the cohort. Pu-239 has no radioactive progeny
that contribute significantly to dose over the lifetime of the cohort, while Pb-210 decays to Bi-210 and
Po-210, and Ra-226 decays through a chain of 8 radioactive progeny which contribute to doses. Some
example cases include: Pu-239, which with 1 significant radionuclide in the decay chain took 1.5
seconds of cpu time, Pb-210 with 3 significant radionuclides in the decay chain took 3 cpu seconds,
and Ra-226 with 9 significant radionuclides in the decay chain took 20 cpu seconds. RADRISK
requires 16 cpu seconds to compile, 1 cpu second to link and the sample problem executed in 5 cpu
seconds on the IBM. The sample problem for the DG version took about 5 minutes on the MV 4000.
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
RADRISK compiles and executes in 350 K on the IBM 3033. The source was converted from IBM
using the Data General MV 20000. The sample case was tested by RSIC without modification of the
source on the MV 4000.
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
An IBM OS/VS Assembler and Fortran H Extended Enhanced compiler are required. The
operating system for the IBM 3033 used for testing is the IBM OS/VS2. On the Data General, the
Fortran 77 compiler is required under AOS/VS.
a. Included in the documentation:
D. E. Dunning, Jr., R. W. Leggett, and M. G. Yalcintas, "A Combined Methodology for
Estimating Dose Rates and Health Effects from Exposure to Radioactive Pollutants," ORNL/TM-7105
b. Background information:
R. E. Sullivan, N. S. Nelson, W. H. Ellett, D. E. Dunning, Jr., R. W. Leggett, M. G. Yalcintas,
and K. F. Eckerman, "Estimates of Health Risk from Exposure to Radioactive Pollutants, ORNL/TM-7745 (1981).
11. CONTENTS OF CODE PACKAGE
Included are the referenced document (10.a) and one (1.2MB) DOS diskette which contains the
source code and sample problem input and output.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
March 1984, revised August 1988.
KEYWORDS: RADIONUCLIDES; INTERNAL DOSE; AIRBORNE