1. NAME AND TITLE
CAMERA and CAM: Radiation Transport Analysis Code System and the Computerized Man (CAM) Model.
McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California.
NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, Texas.
Experimental and Mathematical Physics Consultants, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
FORTRAN IV, CDC CYBER-74 (C00240/C0074/00); FORTRAN 77 , IBM PC (C00240/IBMPC/01).
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
CAM was developed for use in analyzing the radiation dose absorbed by man. CAMERA was developed to perform analyses with CAM. Among the capabilities of CAMERA are combining subgeometry models, performing error tests on geometric models, tracing rays through the geometry, writing results to a file in various forms, collapsing ray-tracing information to areal density distributions, and preparing cross section view plots. Proton dose calculations are performed by direct input of CAMERA areal density results into CCC-118/SIGMA. CAMERA has been used in conjunction with SIGMA to analyze space vehicle shielding effectiveness, as well as for body shielding effectiveness, in space radiation dose studies.
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
CAM contains some 1,100 unique quadratic surface equations and 2,450 solid regions. The internal body geometry of the organs, voids, bones and bone marrow is explicitly modeled.
The ray tracing routines used in CAMERA are essentially the same as those used in CCC-89/FASTER, CCC-118/SIGMA, and CCC-243/PATCH. Error tests on the geometry model include checking uniqueness of the points specified in the input region descriptions and requiring that each ray traced end on the outer boundary of the system. Erroneous ray tracing results due to overlaps and holes in the model are minimized by a CAMERA feature enabling the code to automatically approximate rays through these erroneous regions. Areal density distributions are obtained by tallying the total ray lengths into logarithmically spaced bins.
Dose point locations in distributed organs such as the bone marrow can be determined by a random sampling option. Rays can be traced either randomly or systematically distributed in solid angle about the dose point.
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
CAMERA is entirely variable-dimensioned, so that the problem size is limited only by the computer core available. CAM requires 260 K octal words of core. CAMERA can be used for small problems with less than 100 K.
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
CAMERA traces rays at an average rate of about 5 rays per second on the CDC 6500 computer.
CAMERA-PC takes about 5 minutes on an IBM PC/XT under DOS 3.3, using the sample problem included in the package.
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
CAMERA was written to run on a CDC 6500 computer with 400 K octal words of core. It should be operable, with minor modifications, on most machines using FORTRAN IV, with at least 100 K octal core. It uses tape and disc files for input, output and scratch. In addition to a printer, options may require use of a card punch and an SC4020 plotter.
CAMERA will also run on IBM PC's and compatibles, with or without a math co-processor.
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
A FORTRAN IV compiler and a standard SCOPE operating system, with the Stromberg Datagraphics, Inc., SC4020 software package, are required.
For the PC version, the Microsoft FORTRAN Version 5.0 is needed for the FORTRAN sources. For the Assembler routines, Microsoft Assembler Version 5.1 is required.
a. Included in the documentation:
M. P. Billings and W. R. Yucker, "The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) Model," MDC-G4655 (September 1973).
"README.DOC" and "CAMERA.DOC", informal notes, Experimental and Mathematical Physics Consultants, Maryland (July 1990).
b. Background information:
M. P. Billings and W. R. Yucker, "A Detailed Geometrical Model of the Human Anatomy," MDAC Paper WD-2354 (July 1974).
W. R. Yucker and M. P. Billings, "Body Mass Distributions for Radiation Dose Analysis," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. (June 1974); also MDAC Paper WD-2245 (June 1974).
11. CONTENTS OF CODE PACKAGE
Included are the referenced documents (10.a) and one (1.2MB) DOS diskette which contains the source code, data library and sample problem input.
The PC version (C00240/IBMPC/01) is available on one (1.2MB) diskette in self-extracting compressed DOS files, and contains an executable created with Microsoft.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
November 1974; August 1975; November 1982; November 1990, April 1995.
KEYWORDS: PHANTOM; RAY-TRACING; MICROCOMPUTER