1. NAME AND TITLE
BREMRAD: External and Internal Bremsstrahlung Calculation Code.
Chemical Laboratory, Battelle-Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington.
The contributing installation was known as Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General
Electric Company, while the code, BREMRAD, was in the process of development. The
technology dates to the early 1960's. It was distributed by RSIC seven times between 1965-1979.
3. CODING LANGUAGE AND COMPUTER
FORTRAN; IBM 7090 and 7094.
4. NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVED
BREMRAD was developed to calculate bremsstrahlung spectra for a thick target for use in
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
The code BREMRAD was developed for calculating external bremsstrahlung by the method of
Bethe and Heitler as extended by Elwert, and internal bremsstrahlung by the method of Knipp and
Uhlenbeck. Internal bremsstrahlung is defined to be radiation emitted when a beta particle leaves a
nucleus. When a beta particle is absorbed, the radiation is called external bremsstrahlung. For
each photon energy, the output contains the number of photons per beta from internal bremsstrahlung, and from external bremsstrahlung with up to four atomic absorbers multiplied by the photon
energy interval specified as input. There is an option for obtaining the results in different units.
6. RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS
There is no available information at this time to indicate restrictions or limitations that may
7. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME
Running time estimated for a typical problem is 3 minutes.
8. COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
The code is designed for an IBM 7090 and 7094. A 32,768 core memory and three tape units
9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
The code was written to be compiled and executed in the IBM FORTRAN II Monitor System.
Only input, output, and system tape assignments are made.
H. H. Van Tuyl, "BREMRAD, A Computer Code for External and Internal Bremsstrahlung
Calculations," HW-83784 (September 1964).
11. CONTENTS OF CODE PACKAGE
The package contains the referenced document and one (1.2MB) DOS diskette on which is
written in four files: the source card deck, input data for a sample problem, Fermi Function data,
and output from the sample problem.
12. DATE OF ABSTRACT
January 1966; updated July 1981, February 1985.
KEYWORDS: GAMMA-RAY; BREMSSTRAHLUNG; BETA-RAY