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No. 430  December 2000
"A prudent person profits from personal experience, a wise one from the experience of others." 

-- Dr. Joseph Collins


The following information was taken from the ANS News September/October 2000 issue.

ANS President James A. Lake has been named associate laboratory director of nuclear and energy systems engineering at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Lake, who has worked at INEEL since 1984, will be responsible for all of INEEL's research and development activities supporting the DOE's Energy business line, including nuclear, renewable, and fossil energy generation, and industrial, transportation, and building energy utilization. He formerly served as INEEL's director of advanced nuclear energy products. Lake was instrumental in establishing INEEL as a lead laboratory, along with Argonne National Laboratory, for nuclear reactor technology within the DOE. He replaces Jerry Ethridge, ANS member since 1978, who has been named general manager of site services and infrastructure.

Alvin Trivelpiece, ANS member since 1974 has received the Distinguished Career Award from Fusion Power Associates. Trivelpiece, recently retired from his post as director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was recognized for his research and educational contributions to fusion research, his government service to fusion and energy research, his role in founding FPA, and other career accomplishments.


Clarence E. Larson, 89, ANS Fellow Emeritus and charter member, died February 15. A chemist and research administrator, Larson served as chief of the Analytical Section at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory from 1942-1943. He was named head of the Y-12 electromagnetic separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943 and later served as director of research and development at Y-12. From 1949-50 he was superintendent of the plant. He served as director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1950-55, during which time widely used methods of extracting plutonium from irradiated fuel elements were developed. In 1955 he was named vice president of research for the National Carbon Company, and he also served as a delegate to the United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy that year. In 1961 he was named vice president for Union Carbide Nuclear Company and general manager of its activities as contractor at ORNL. He was appointed a commissioner of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1969 and served until 1974, overseeing a period of political tumult for the nuclear industry.

NRC Codes Made Available

Several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) software packages which were transferred from the ESTSC to RSICC were incorporated into the RSICC computer code collection. Please browse the computer code abstracts available at RSICC's www site for more information on these packages.

PSR-484/SARA 4.16
DLC-194/LAS CRUCES limited to US distribution


NOTE: The United States distribution restriction on CCC-705/MCNPX2.1.5 was removed; this package is now available for general distribution.

Three new packages were added to the computer software collection during the month, two being foreign contributions. One addition/modification was also added.


Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, contributed an addition and a modification to this code system which calculates neutron and gamma-ray skyshine doses using the integral line-beam method. The new program is called SKYCONES, and SKYDOSE was updated to Version 2.3. This package now includes the SKYNEUT 1.1, SKYDOSE 2.3, MCSKY 2.3 and SKYCONES 1.1 codes plus the DLC-188/SKYDATA library to form a comprehensive system for calculating skyshine doses. SKYCONES evaluates the skyshine doses produced by a point neutron or gamma-photon source emitting into the atmosphere radiation that is collimated into an upward conical annulus between two arbitrary polar angles. The source is assumed to be axially (azimuthally) symmetric about a vertical axis through the source and can have an arbitrary polyenergetic spectrum. Nested contiguous annular cones can thus be used to represent the energy and polar-angle dependence of a skyshine source emitting radiation into the atmosphere. The modified SKYDOSE code evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated by three simple geometries: (1) a source in a silo, (2) a source behind an infinitely long, vertical, black wall, and (3) a source in a rectangular building.

These codes can be easily ported to almost any computer with a Fortran 77 compiler. They were written in Fortran 77 and tested on Pentium computers. Included SKYDOSE and SKYCONES executables were created on a Pentium/120 using the Lahey 90 Fortran compiler. Executable files produced by the Microsoft Fortran compiler (version 5.1) are included for MCSKY and SKYNEUT codes. The package is transmitted on one 3.5-in DS/HD (1.44MB) diskette written in a self-extracting compressed DOS file containing source codes, executable files, response function data files, documentation and files for input and output of example problems. References: KSU Report 9503 (Revised January 1997), KSU 9902 (Revised June 1999), KSU 9501 (Revised October 1997), KSU 9903 (June 1999) and KSU Report 271 (June 1995). Fortran 77; IBM PC (C00646/IBMPC/03).


Center for Neutron Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Japan, through the NEA Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, contributed this Monte Carlo nucleon-meson transport code system. NMTC/JAERI97 is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAERI97 simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nucleon-meson transport processes. High energy nuclear reactions induced by incident high energy protons, neutrons and pions are simulated with the Monte Carlo method by the intra-nuclear nucleon-nucleon reaction probabilities based on BERTINI followed by the particle evaporation including high energy fission process. The ISOBAR code is employed as an alternative option for the intranuclear cascade calculation. The pre-equilibrium process is calculated by an exciton model in which proton, neutron, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and particles are taken into account. Inter-nuclear transport processes of the incident and secondary nucleons in macroscopic material regions are simulated with the Monte Carlo method based on the O5R algorithm and a continuous slowing down model for charged particles. The nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. NMTC/JAERI97 runs on Sun workstations under the Solaris operating system and requires a Fortran 77 compiler. The package is transmitted on one DS/HD diskette which includes a GNU compressed tar file containing Fortran source files and test cases. No executable is included with the package. References: JAERI-Data/Code 98-005 (February 1998) and JAERI-Research 99-010 (February 1999). Fortran 77; Sun (C00694/SUN05/00).


Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, contributed this code system for high energy particle transport calculations. LAHET2.8 is typically used for transport calculation for nucleons and pions in the medium energy range within a complex geometry. Results estimated include particle fluxes, particle production, energy deposition, activation and material damage. LAHET may also be used to calculate differential particle production cross sections from the models included in the code. Libraries specific to the LAHET Bertini model and gamma-ray production cross sections from spallation products are included.

Transport of particles includes Gaussian multiple Coulomb scattering with Gaussian range straggling for charged particles. Nuclear interactions are described by the intranuclear cascade/evaporation/fission model (Bertini or Isabel Inc. models) and nuclear elastic scattering is included for nucleon transport. The geometric description is that adapted from MCNP Version 3A. The transport of photons and low-energy neutrons produced in a LAHET calculation is accomplished by linking to MCNP Version 4B or 4C through a particle source file. Complete utilization requires the installation of MCNP Version 4B or 4C and the associated cross section libraries, which are not included in this distribution but are distributed by RSICC in separate packages CCC-700/MCNP4C and DLC-200/MCNPDATA.

The recommended upper limit for nucleon transport is 3.5 GeV; for pions, it is 2.5 GeV. Higher energies are possible, but the interaction physics is problematic. Muons are transported without nuclear interaction. Hydrogen and helium ions are generally restricted to interactions below 1 GeV/amu.

LAHET2.8 runs on either a Cray or Unix workstation. There is no PC version. Machine specific patches are included for Unicos, SGI IRIX, IBM AIX, Sun Solaris, and HP-UX. A Fortran 77 compiler is required under a Unix operating system. The package is transmitted on a CD which includes the source code, scripts, test cases, and data libraries written in a GNU compressed tar file. Currently distribution is limited to the United States. References: LA-UR-00-4454 (September 18, 2000) and LA-UR-00-2140 (January 2000). Fortran 77; Sun, IBM, HP, SGI, and Cray (C00696MFMWS00).


Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Japan, through the OECD NEA Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, contributed the RODBURN and FEMAXI V software. This code system calculates power distribution, burn-up, and thermal/mechanical properties of LWR fuel rods. RODBURN calculates the power generation density profile in the radial and axial directions and fast neutron flux, and concentrations of fission product isotopes and fissile materials of a single rod irradiated in PWR, BWR and Halden BWR. RODBURN writes an output file when read by FEMAXI-V predicts the thermal and mechanical behavior of a light water reactor fuel rod during normal and transient (not accident) conditions. It can analyze the integral behavior of a whole fuel rod throughout its life as well as the localized behavior of a small part of a fuel rod. Temperature distribution, radial and axial deformations, fission gas release, and inner gas pressure are calculated as a function of irradiation time and axial position. Stresses and strains in the pellet and cladding are calculated and PCMI analysis is performed. Also, thermal conductivity degradation of pellet and cladding waterside oxidation are modeled. Its analytical capabilities also cover the boiling transient anticipated in BWR.

The codes run on Sun under Solaris 2.5.1 and on personal computers under MS-DOS 6.0, Windows® 95, 98. A Fortran77 compiler is required on Sun workstations. The Visual Fortran V5.0 compiler was used to create the PC executables included in the package. The RODBURN/FEMAXI V source codes, PC executables, and test cases are distributed in both tar and self-extracting compressed DOS files. References: partial translation of JAERI-Data/CODE 99-046 (1999) and JAERI-M 93-108 (1993) (in Japanese). Fortran 77; SUN and PC 486 (P00503MNYCP00).


RSICC attempts to keep its users/contributors advised of conferences, courses, and symposia in the field of radiation protection, transport, and shielding through this section of the newsletter. Should you be involved in the planning/organization of such events, feel free to send your announcements and calls for papers via email to finchsy@ornl.gov with "conferences" in the subject line. Please include the announcement in its native format as an attachment to the message. If the meeting is on a website, please include the url.

Every attempt is made to ensure that the links provided in the Conference and Calendar sections of this newsletter are correct and live. However, the very nature of the web creates the possibility that the links may become unavailable. In that case, please call or mail the contact provided.

MCNP™ Workshops for the Year2001

The following is the 2001 schedule for Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Workshops. These classes are taught by the team who develops and maintains MCNP.
27 Feb-2 March Advanced Class Los Alamos National Laboratory
2-6 April Level to be decided Imperial College, London, UK
5-8 June Introductory Class Los Alamos National Laboratory

Introductory classes are for people who have little or no experience with MCNP. The classes survey the features of MCNP so the beginning user will be exposed to the capabilities of the program, and will have hands-on experience at running the code to solve rudimentary problems. Course topics include Basic Geometry, Source Definitions, Output (Tallies) Specification and Interpretation, Advanced Geometry (repeated structures specification), Variance Reduction Techniques, Statistical Analysis, Criticality, Plotting of Geometry, Tallies, and Particle Tracks, and Neutron/Photon/Electron Physics.

Advanced classes are for people with MCNP experience who want to extend their knowledge and gain depth of understanding. Most areas of MCNP operation will be discussed in detail, with emphasis on Advanced Geometry, Advanced Variance Reduction Techniques, and other Advanced features of the program. Time will be available to discuss approaches to specific problems of interest to students.

NOTE: While MCNP supports a number of platforms, class computers are usually Unix machines. Experience with Unix will be helpful to the student but is not essential.

Costs For Domestic U.S. Classes: Cost for the class is $1,800. There is a $300 discount if payment is received by the close of registration/early payment deadline for each class. Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) provides the code and data package and documentation for a reduced fee of $310 to all who complete the class and free to students employed by sponsors that fund RSICC.

The class fee includes a notebook with all class viewgraphs (over 300) and handouts. Dinner the first evening is included as part of your registration fee and snacks and refreshments are provided during class breaks. Lodging will be available for roughly $75 per night. Information will be sent by follow-up letter or email when we receive your registration information.

All classes provide interactive computer learning. Time will be available to discuss individual questions and problems with MCNP experts. To register for the LANL classes via the Internet, go to http://www.solutionsbyhqc.com/mcnpform.html. For registration information on the European classes, contact Enrico Sartori, OECD/NEA at sartori@nea.fr.

SCALE Training Course Schedule for 2001

The SCALE staff at ORNL will be offering two training courses in the spring of 2001. The courses will emphasize hands-on experience solving practical problems on PCs. There will be workgroups of two persons each. No prior experience in the use of SCALE is required to attend. The registration fee is $1800 for one course or $2700 for both fall courses ($300 discount if you register at least one month before the course). A copy of the SCALE software and manual on CD may be obtained for an additional fee of $310. Registrations will be accepted on a first-come basis. Registration forms submitted directly from the Web are preferred. Registration via fax (815-327-6460, yes, the fax area code is different!) or emailing Kay Lichtenwalter at lichtenwalsk@ornl.gov is also acceptable. The registration fee must be paid by check, traveler's checks, or credit card (VISA or MasterCard only).

Class size is limited and courses are subject to cancellation if minimum enrollment is not obtained one month prior to the course. Course fees are refundable up to one month before each class. Classes are cosponsored by RSICC. Foreign nationals must register at least six weeks in advance. For further information, contact Kay at 865-574-9213 or visit the web, http://www.cped.ornl.gov/scale/ trcourse.html.

SCALE Shielding and Source Terms Course (April 23-27, 2001) and (October 15-19, 2001)

The SCALE Shielding and Source Terms Course emphasizes SAS2 and ORIGEN-ARP (depletion/source-term generation) and SAS3 and SAS4 using MORSE-SGC (3-D Monte Carlo neutron/gamma shielding). It also covers SAS1/XSDRNPM (1-D neutron/gamma shielding) and QADS/QAD-CGGP (3-D point kernel gamma shielding).

SCALE KENO-VI Criticality Course (April 30-May 4, 2001)

The SCALE KENO VI Criticality Course focuses on KENO VI and the associated criticality  analysis sequences in CSAS6. KENO VI is the latest version of of the KENO Monte Carlo  criticality safety code. KENO VI contains a much larger set of geometrical bodies than KENO  V.a, including cuboids, cylinders, spheres, cones, dodecahedrons, elliptical cylinders, ellipsoids, hoppers, parallelpipeds, planes, rhomboids, and wedges. The flexibility of KENO VI is increased by allowing the following features: intersecting geometry regions; hexagonal as well as cuboidal arrays; regions, holes, arrays, and units rotated to any angle and truncated to any position; and the use of an array boundary that intersects the array. Users should be aware that the added geometry features in KENO VI can result in significantly longer run times than KENO V.a. A KENO VI problem that can be modeled in KENO V.a will typically run four times as long in KENO VI as in KENO V.a. Thus the new version VI is not a replacement for the existing version V.a, but an additional version for more complex geometries that could not be modeled previously. Two-dimensional color plots of the geometry model can be generated in KENO V.a, or the model may be viewed using the KENO3D 3-D visualization tool.

SCALE KENO-Va Criticality Course (October 22-26, 2001)

The SCALE KENO V.a Criticality Course focuses on KENO V.a and the associated criticality analysis sequences in CSAS. KENO V.a is a widely used 3-D multigroup Monte Carlo    criticality safety analysis code that has been in use for more than 15 years. KENO V.a is a fast, easy-to-use code that allows users to build complex geometry models using basic geometrical bodies of cuboids, spheres, cylinders, hemispheres, and hemicylinders.  Two-dimensional color plots of the geometry model can be generated in KENO V.a, or the model may be viewed using the KENO3D 3-D visualization tool.


Your attention is directed to the following events of interest.

February 2001

2001 International ALARA Symposium, Feb. 4-7, 2001, Anaheim, CA, sponsored by the North American Technical Center and others. Contact: David Miller, NATC, (tel 217-935-8881, ext. 3880, fax 217-935-4632, email david_ miller@illinova.com).

Introduction Course to MCBEND Radiation Transport Software, Feb. 6-9, 2001, Winfrith, United Kingdom, sponsored by AEA Technology, Winfrith, UK. Contact: Simon Aplin (tel + 44 (0) 1305 203634, fax +44 (0) 1305 202746, email simon.aplin@aeat.co.uk url www.aeat.co.uk/answers).

Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2001), Feb. 11-15, 2001, Albuquerque, NM, sponsored by the Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies at the University of New Mexico. Contact: ISNPS-UNM, (tel 505-277-0446, fax 505-277-2814, email isnps@unm.edu, url www-chne.unm.edu/isnps).

Fire and Safety 2001: Fire Protection and Prevention in Nuclear Facilities, Feb. 12-14, 2001, London, England, sponsored by Nuclear Engineering International. Contact: Julie Rossiter, Wilmington Publishing, Ltd., Wilmington House, Church Hill, Wilmington, Dartford, Kent, DA2 7EF, U.K. (tel +44 1322 394706, fax +44 1322 276 743, email conferences@wilmington.co.uk).

21st Century Biodosimetry: Quantifying the Past and Predicting the Future, Feb. 22, 2001, Arlington, VA, sponsored by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Contact: William M. Beckner (tel 301-657-2652, fax 301-907-8768, url www.ncrp.com).

Waste Management 2001 Symposium, Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 2001, Tucson, AZ, sponsored by WM Symposia, Inc. Contact: LOI, Inc. (tel 520-292-5652, fax 520-292-9080, email info@laser-options.com, url www.wmsym.org).

Fourth Urals Seminar on Radiation Damage Physics, Feb. 25-Mar. 3, 2001, Snezhinsk, Russia, sponsored by the Institute of Metal Physics. Contact: C.M. Elliott, foreign secretary (tel 217-244-7725, fax 217-244-4293, email cmelliot@uiuc.edu, url www.physics.uiuc.edu/Research/ Workshops/4th_Urals/).

April 2001

Implications for Radiation Measurement Science, Atmospheric and Biospheric Processes, and Health Effects from Worldwide Fallout, Apr. 4-5, 2001, Arlington, VA, sponsored by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Contact: William M. Beckner (tel 301-657-2652, fax 301-907-8768, url www.ncrp.com).

Radiation Transport Calculations using the EGS Monte Carlo System, Apr. 30 - May 3, 2001, Ottawa, Canada. Contact: Blake Walters, Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, K1A 0R6. (tel (613) 993-2715, fax (613) 952-9865, e-mail bwalters@irs.phy.nrc.ca, url www.irs.inms.nrc.ca/inms/irs/papers/egsnrc/brochure.html).

May 2001

The ANSWERS Software Service Reactor Physics, Radiation Shielding and Nuclear Criticality Annual Seminar, May 15-17, 2001, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom, sponsored by the AEA Technology. Contact: Simon Aplin (tel + 44 (0) 1305 203634, fax +44 (0) 1305 202746, email simon.aplin@aeat.co.uk url www.aeat.co.uk/answers).

June 2001

ANS Annual Meeting, June 17-21, 2001, Milwaukee, WI, more details later.


The following literature cited has been reviewed and placed in the RSICC Information Storage and Retrieval Information System (SARIS), now searchable on the RSICC web server (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/SARIS.html). This early announcement is made as a service to the shielding community. Copies of the literature are not distributed by RSICC. They may generally be obtained from the author or from a documentation center such as the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. For literature listed as available from INIS contact INIS Clearinghouse, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna.

Radiation Shielding Literature

Health Phys., 79, 468-469 . . . Program Overview. . . . Townsend, L.W. . . . November 2000.

Health Phys., 79, 470-494 . . . Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures. . . . Wilson, J.W. . . . November 2000 . . . NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA.

Health Phys., 79, 495-506 . . . Biological Effects of Cosmic Radiation: Deterministic and Stochastic. . . . Blakely, E.A. . . . November 2000 . . . Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.

Health Phys., 79, 515-525 . . . Radiation Exposure for Human Mars Exploration. . . . Simonsen, L.C.; Wilson, J.W.; Kim, M.H.; Cucinotta, F.A. . . . November 2000 . . . NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA; NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

Health Phys., 79, 526-544 . . . Overview of Aircraft Radiation Exposure and Recent ER-2 Measurements. . . . Goldhagen, P. . . . November 2000 . . . Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, NY.

Health Phys., 79, 545-546 . . . British Airways Measurement of Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Concorde Supersonic Transport. . . . Bagshaw, M. . . . November 2000 . . . British Airways, Harmondsworth, United Kingdom.

Health Phys., 79, 547-552 . . . Potential Doses to Passengers and Crew of Supersonic Transports. . . . Chee, P.A.; Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J. . . . November 2000 . . . The Boeing Co.; Seattle, WA; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA.

Health Phys., 79, 553-559 . . . The NIOSH/FAA Working Women's Health Study: Evaluation of the Cosmic-Radiation Exposures of Flight Attendants. . . . Waters, M.; Bloom, T.F.; Grajewski, B. . . . November 2000 . . . National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH.

Health Phys., 79, 560-562 . . . Factors Affecting Cosmic-Ray Doses at Aircraft Altitudes. . . . Kendall, G.M. . . . November 2000 . . . National Radiological Protection Board, Oxon, United Kingdom.

Health Phys., 79, 563-567 . . . European Measurements of Aircraft Crew Exposure to Cosmic Radiation. . . . Menzel, H-G.; O'Sullivan, D.; Beck, P.; Bartlett, D. . . . November 2000 . . . European Commission, Brussels, Belgium; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland; Austrian Research Center, Seibersdorf, Austria; National Radiological Protection Board Chilton, United Kingdom.

Health Phys., 79, 568-575 . . . Assessment of the Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Canadian-Based Routes. . . . Tume, P.; Lewis, B.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Cousins, T.; Hoffarth, B.E.; Jones, T.A. . . . November 2000 . . . Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada; Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Health Phys., 79, 576-584 . . . Epidemiologic Studies of Pilots and Aircrew. . . . Boice, J.D., Jr.; Blettner, M.; Auvinen, A. . . . November 2000 . . . International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD; School of Public Health, Bielefeld, Germany; STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland.

Health Phys., 79, 585-590 . . . Dose Limits for Astronauts. . . . Sinclair, W.K. . . . November 2000 . . . National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

Health Phys., 79, 591-595 . . . Radiation Exposure During Air Travel: Guidance Provided by the Federal Aviation Administration for Air Carrier Crews. . . . Friedberg, W.; Copeland, K.; Duke, F.E.; O'Brien, K., III, Darden, E.B., Jr. . . . November 2000 . . . Civil Aeromedical Institute, Oklahoma City, OK; Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.

Health Phys., 79, 596-599 . . . Regulatory Control of Air Crew Exposure to Cosmic Radiation: The European Approach. . . . McAulay, I.R. . . . November 2000 . . . University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Health Phys., 79, 600-601 . . . Perspectives of Those Impacted: Flight Attendant's Perspective. . . . Carter, E. . . . November 2000 . . . Association of Professional Flight Attendants, Euless, TX.

Health Phys., 79, 602-607 . . . Perspectives of Those Impacted: Airline Pilot's Perspective. . . . Butler, G.C.; Nicholas, J.; Lackland, D.T.; Friedberg, W. . . . November 2000 . . . Airline Pilots Association International, Herndon, VA; Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC; Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma, City, OK.

Health Phys., 79, 608-609 . . . Perspectives of Those Impacted: An Airline's Perspective. . . . Bagshaw, M. . . . November 2000 . . . British Airways, Harmondsworth, United Kingdom.

Health Phys., 79, 610-613 . . . Do the Risks Justify Action? . . . Clarke, R.H. . . . November 2000 . . . National Radiological Protection Board, Oxen, United Kingdom.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 321-339 . . . Measurement and Analysis of Capture Reaction Rates of 237Np in Various Thermal Neutron Fields by Critical Assembly and Heavy Water Thermal Neutron Facility of Kyoto University . . . Iwasaki, T.; Horiuchi, T.; Fujiwara, D.; Unesaki, H.; Shiroya, S.; Hayashi, M.; Nakamura, H.; Kitada, T.; Shinohara, N. . . . November 2000 . . . Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan; Kyoto University, Osaka, Japan; Osaka University, Osaka, Japan; Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 340-356 . . . Neutron Cross-Section Evaluations for 238U Up to 150 MeV. . . . Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Shubin, Y.N.; Gai, E.V.; Titarenko, N.N.; Ventura, A.; Gudows November 2000 . . . Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia; ENEA, Bologna, Italy; Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 357-362 . . . Photofission Cross Sections for 237Np in the Energy Interval from 5.27 to 10.83 MeV. . . . Geraldo, L.P.; Semmler, R.; Goncalez, O.L.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Garcia, F.; Rod . . . November 2000 . . . Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas - IPEC/UNISANTOS, Santos, Brazil; IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Instituto de Estudos Avancados/CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 388-398 . . . The Third Basis Function Relevant to an Approximate Model of Neutral Particle Transport in Ducts. . . . Garcia, R.D.M.; Ono, S.; Vieira, W.J. . . . November 2000 . . . Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 399-408 . . . Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function. . . . Booth, T.E. . . . November 2000 . . . Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.

Nucl. Sci. Eng., 136, 409-414 . . . Semianalytical Procedures for Obtaining Low-Order Non-Equally-Probable Step-Function Representations in Multigroup Monte Carlo. . . . Mao, L.; Nimal, J.C. . . . November 2000 . . . CEA-DRN/DMT/SERMA/LEPP, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

Nucl. Technol. 132, 179-195 . . . Conceptual Design of a Clinical BNCT Beam in an Adjacent Dry Cell of the Jozef Stefan Institute Triga Reactor. . . . Maucec, M. . . . November 2000 . . . Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Nucl. Technol. 132, 206-213 . . . Comparison of Cecor Algorithm to Lagrange Multiplier Method to Estimate Reactor Power Distributions. . . . Webb, R.J.; Brittingham, J.C. . . . November 2000 . . . Arizona Public Service Co., Tonopah, AZ.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 214-226 . . . A Pressurized Water Reactor Plutonium Incinerator Based on Thorium Fuel and Seed-Blanket Assembly Geometry. . . . Galperin, A.; Segev, M.; Todosow, M. . . . November 2000 . . . Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; Brookhaven National Laboratory,Upton, NY.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 281-289 . . . Analyses and Development of Effective Compensation Shields in a Multilegged Duct Streaming System . . . Ueki, K.; Kawai, M. . . . November 2000 . . . Ship Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki, Japan.

Nucl. Technol., 132, 309-324 . . . Design and Characteristics of the JRR-3M Thermal Neutron Radiography Facility and Its Imaging Systems. . . November 2000 . . . Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan; Rikkyo University, Kanagawa, Japan; Kyoto University, Osaka, Japan.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 2-20 . . . Study on Safety Assessment Methodology for Shallow Land Disposal of Low-and-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. . . . Shushen, L.; Zhiming, W.; Zede, G.; Zhentang, L.; Yingjie, Z. Shengfang, L.; Kamiyama, H.; . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan. . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 21-31 . . . Field Test of Radionuclide Migration in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Zede, G.; Zhiming, W.; Shushen, L.; Gang, J.; Qingchun, H.; Duanjie, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Mukai, . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; JAERI, Ibaraki, Japan. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 32-35 . . . Migration of 85Sr in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Zhiming, W.; Shushen, L.; Zede, G., et al. . . . January 2000 . . . In Chinese, no English abstract.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 36-42 . . . Simulation Test on Migration of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Shiwei, N.; Laigen, Y.; Yingjie, Z.; Xinsheng, H.; Weijuan, L.; Yamamoto, T.; Komiya, T. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; JAERI, Ibaraki, Japan. . . .In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 43-49 . . . Experimental Investigation of Two-Dimension Migration of Radionuclides in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Xiuzhen, Z.; Yueru, J.; Ruwei, M.; Yaoguo, F.; Yueqin, H.; Xiaobin, X.; Yong, M.; Caiping, G . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; JAERI, Ibaraki, Japan. . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 50-56 . . . Direct Measurement of Radionuclide Migration in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Yueru, J.; Ruwei, M. Yaoguo, F.; Zede, G.; Xiuzhen, Z.; Xiaobin, X.; Yong, M.; Yueqin, H.; Zunsu, H.; Kamiyama, H.; Shimooka, K. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Yaiyuan, China; JAERI, Ibaraki, Japan. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 57-61 . . . Migration of 3H in Loess Aerated Zone Under Natural Rainfall Condition . . . Zhiming, W.; Shushen, L.; Zede, G.; Yuee, Y.; Jinsheng W. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute of Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 68-73 . . . Study on Sorption and Migration for 85SR, 134Cs and 60Co in Loess. . . . Zhentang, L.; Shi, C.; Hui, W.; Zhijun, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Ogawa, H.; Takebe, S.; Tanaka, T. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; JAERI, Ibaraki, Japan. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 74-81 . . . Radiation Environment Impact Assessment of Field Radionuclide Migration Test. . . . Zede, G.; Jingyin, H.; Zhiming, W.; Bianlian, H.; Xiaojuan, J.; Yukuei, Y. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 82-85 . . . Study on Double Peak Distribution of 85Sr in Loess Aerated Zone. . . . Shushen, L.; Zhiming, W.; Yingjie, Z.; Kuanliang, L.; Naixiu, Y.; Xijun, L. . . . January 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China; Chengdu University of Technology, China. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 129-137 . . . The Preliminary Success of ALARA Implementation in Daya Bay

NPP. . . . Maochun, Y.; Degan, C. . . . May 2000 . . . Daya Bay NPP, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 144-152 . . . Study of Method for Calculate Accident Washout Factor for the Coastal Site of a Nuclear Power Plant to be Built. . . . Erbang, H.; Zhanrong, G.; Gang, J.; et al. . . . May 2000 . . . In Chinese, no English abstract.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 153-158 . . . Coupled Calculation of Dose Rate and Temperature in the Near Field of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Repository. . . . Zhenyao, S.; Guoding, L.

Shushen, L. . . . May 2000 . . . Tsinghua, University, Beijing, China. . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 159-165 . . . Dose Assessment of Remedial Action for Uranium Tailing Impoundment of a Nuclear Factory. . . . Xutong, L.; Ruwei, M.; Zede, G. . . . May 2000 . . . China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, China . . . In Chinese.

Radiat. Prot., 20, 166-174 . . . Dosimetric Constants for Isotropic Point Source of Radionuclides Emitting Photons. . . . Shijun, L. . . . May 2000 . . . Suzhou Medical College, China. . . In Chinese, no English abstract.

NCRP Report No. 133. . .Radiation Protection for Procedures Performed Outside the Radiology Department. . .August 2000. . .National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda. MD.

ORNL/TM-2000/151 . . . Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium -- Uranium Oxides. . . . Shimizu, Y.; Hopper, C.M. . . . November 2000 . . . Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

ORNL/TM-2000/173 . . . Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies. . . . Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Frankle, S.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Little, R.C.; Wagschal, J. . . . November 2000 . . . Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.